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Corrections trend evaluation (Research Paper Sample)


write a paper in which you conduct research and evaluate past, present, and future trends pertaining to the development and operation of institutional and community based corrections in the unites prisons . As part of your evaluation, identify and analyze current and future issues facing prisons and prison administrators today and the role/issue of alternate correction systems as a developing trend


Corrections Trend Evaluation
The three key reasons why crimes are punished are retribution, prevention and deterrence. Corrections are one of the integral pillars of the criminal justice system. In addition to dealing with inmates’ rehabilitation in correctional facilities, corrections also consider people placed on probation or parole. The society's expectation is that, once an individual is released from the correctional institution, he or she is a changed or reformed person (Siegel, & Bartollas, 2014). In the evaluation of the corrections trend, past, present and future changes relating to the operation and development of community based and institutional correction facilities. This discussion identifies, analyzes and evaluates present and future concerns facing the prisons and their administrators currently and the developing trend of the alternate correction systems.
Past Corrections
In the past, racial barriers and gender were the main factors affecting the system of criminal justice. The State prisons’ history started in 1970 in Walnut Street Jail. Located in Philadelphia, it was the first U.S penitentiary and the building functioned as a city jail. In the eighteenth century, United States used similar principles and functions as those applied in England, however, in terms of punishment, England did very little during that time. The correction systems applied in the two countries differed insignificantly except in terms of punishment. However, it was extremely noticeable that the corrections system in America had distinct punishment, such as the application of use of capital punishment. The U.S had more criminals than England courts, who were sentenced to deaths when it came to capital punishment. Many people fought against death conviction and torture, but given it was the law at that time, pre-meditated cases of murder attracted death sentences (Siegel, & Bartollas, 2014).
The key objective of the correction system is to enable the public to feel protected and secure from criminals. The purpose of the corrections is to house the offenders for purposes of punishment and rehabilitation for their crimes. In May I4 1930, President Herbert Hoover, through an act of congress created The Federal Bureau of Prisons (FBP) and signed it into law. FBP was established within the federal department of justice, as an office where it currently remains. Prior to the enactment of this legislation, federal prisons existed without a central office to oversee them. The opening of the earliest federal prisons in 1890s, the federal prisoners served their sentences in local and state institutions. Alcatraz, the infamous federal prison, was opened in 1934. Ironically, this was against the BOP central office wishes, which perceived the prison as more troublesome than it is worth.
In Europe, the punishment for offenders was not imposed in the form of imprisonment. There was a dual punishment system with varied penalties depending on the economic and social status of the offenders. When a highly noble individual was guilty of a law violation, he or she was sentenced, or fines to forfeit part, or all of the property or land. Suppose a more grievous crime was committed, the individual would be banished for life or given hard labor. When a low class individual committed a crime, he or she would be mutilated, executed and tortured. Punishment was cruel and executed in public. Prisons were places where mostly, offenders were held as they awaited punishment or trail but not used for punishment. Debtors and murderers, children, women and men were all held in a single local prison together. The wardens and guards were neglectful of prisoners and the prisons were poorly maintained, and many prisoners died from diseases. In elaboration, the prison system was filthy, disorganized and barbaric.
Current and Future Corrections
In current prisons, various reforms have been implemented; proper diet, outside inspection, paid staff and other necessities for prisoners are provided, like medical care. There are different prisons for juveniles and adults; women and men. The girls and boys are held separately in their juvenile centre of detention unless they are being tried as adults. There are different court systems for juveniles and the children are accorded different treatment in terms of courts and sentences (Siegel, & Bartollas, 2014). Community corrections have become a significant portion of the correctional system, with emphasis on the development of alternative correction services, which were community based. Community corrections became a considerable alternative t...
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