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Mathematics & Economics
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Research Paper
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English (U.S.)
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Topic:

Greenhouses Gas Emission from Livestock Digestions on the Economic Efficient Equilibrium of the Market (Research Paper Sample)

Instructions:

In the context of Australian economy, livestock industries are regarded as the most viable economic industry. For instance, in the year 2008, gross value of the livestock economy was projected at AUD 19.7 billion including AUD 14 billion as export earnings (Abare, 2008). Australia is regarded as the world largest economy in the export of wool and second behind Brazil in export of red meat. Livestock richly valued in the Northern part of the country that supports 16 million beef cattle. Globally, livestock industry is regarded as the most growing sub agricultural sector since population projected to double by the year 2020 due to continuous consumption of red meat in developing nations ( De Haan et al., 1996) With respect to increase in demand for red meat, Australian livestock industries have greater opportunity to supply the same in addressing global food security.

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Greenhouses Gas Emission from Livestock Digestions on the Economic Efficient Equilibrium of the Market
Introduction
In the context of Australian economy, livestock industries are regarded as the most viable economic industry. For instance, in the year 2008, gross value of the livestock economy was projected at AUD 19.7 billion including AUD 14 billion as export earnings (Abare, 2008). Australia is regarded as the world largest economy in the export of wool and second behind Brazil in export of red meat. Livestock richly valued in the Northern part of the country that supports 16 million beef cattle. Globally, livestock industry is regarded as the most growing sub agricultural sector since population projected to double by the year 2020 due to continuous consumption of red meat in developing nations ( De Haan et al., 1996) With respect to increase in demand for red meat, Australian livestock industries have greater opportunity to supply the same in addressing global food security.
Even though this is regarded as a major step in tackling food security in both Australia and developing countries, it is also regarded as a major environmental issue since overproduction of the same leads to continuous greenhouses gas emission. Cows and sheep are the major red meat producers in Australia and their greenhouse gas emission accounts for approximately same amount of greenhouse gas emitted by transport industry as a whole. Seventy percent of the total Australia greenhouse gas emissions in the livestock sub sector are derived specifically from cows and sheep in the agricultural sector which is equivalent to 10 percent of the total national greenhouse gas emission and manure from cow and sheep also accounts for 1 percent of the national greenhouse which comprises of nitrous oxide and methane (Department of Climate Change, 2008). The data is significantly irrelevant due to its small contribution to the whole world methane emitted globally but a successful development of abatement strategies is regarded as a major mitigation towards greenhouses gas emission.
This paper therefore expounds on the effects of greenhouses gas emission from livestock digestions on the economic efficient equilibrium of the market. The analysis is based on economic theory of externalities thus helps to articulate the effects in terms of cost-benefit analysis using private and social costs and benefits respectively.
Statistical Data Description of Australia Greenhouse gas Emission with Comparison to USA
 


Methane quantity (MtCo2-e)

 


(Years)

Livestock category


1990

2002

2008






Beef Cattle


38.7

39.45

36.6

Dairy cattle


5.0

7.65

6.8

Feedlot cattle


1.65

1.98

2.1

Sheep


25.0

16.2

13.6

Diagram 1: Greenhouse gas emission from livestock industry in Australia in the year 1990, 2002 and 2008 (Department of Climate Change, 2008)
From the above diagram, it is evidently noted that in the year 1990, 2002 and 2008, beef cattle and sheep livestock had the highest quantity of methane gas at 38.7, 39.45 and 36.6 respectively and 25.0, 16.2 and 13.6 respectively. It is therefore clear that the research paper will implicitly look onto these two major significant contributors of greenhouse gas emission in Australia.
 

During the year 1990

During the year 2008

 

Emission

 

Emission


 

Sector

MtCo2-e

Share in %

MtCo2-e

Share in%

 

Beef Cattle

94.5

71.6

100.8

71.7

 

Dairy Cattle

32

24.2

33.1

23.5

 

Swine

1.7

1.4

2.1

1.5

 

Horses

1.9

1.4

3.6

2.6

 

Sheep

1.9

1.4

1

0.7

 

Total

132

100

140.6

100

 

Diagram 2: United States of America Greenhouse gas Emission for the years 1990 and 2008 (EPA, 2010)
USA is the major contributor in the whole world of greenhouse gas emission into the atmosphere. Comparing the USA data for the year 1990 and 2008 with that of Australia, it is evidently clear that even though Australia greenhouse gas emission is insignificant to that of USA but it still has a positive effect on the produce of red meat which is distributed globally mo so to the developing countries.


Emission



Sector


MtCo2-e


Share in %






Primary Industries


146.7


27.50%

Agriculture


64.3


12.10%

Mining


82.3


15.40%

Manufacturing


60


11.30%

Electricity and Gas

...

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