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Chronic Stress Effects on the Body (Research Paper Sample)


Chronic Stress Effects on the Body
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Strategies in Stress Management
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Chronic Stress Effects on the Body
Stress is caused by demanding or challenging situations that trigger specific biological and physiological responses. Whenever a person is stressed, one is said to experience emotional, psychological, or physical strain. In particular, stress impacts all the body systems, including respiratory, endocrine, reproductive, nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal (American Psychological Association, 2018). The most significant thing is that the human body is well-equipped with the ability to cope with acute stress. However, chronic stress has adverse effects on the body. For instance, one way that the body responds to stress is through muscle tension to protect itself again pain or injury (American Psychological Association, 2018). During the onset of a stressful situation, the body releases hormones, such as cortisol and adrenaline. Stress causes the heart to beat faster and elevate blood pressure. That way, enough blood is pumped to all organs in readiness to fight or flight response. When the episode of acute stress passes, the body returns to its normal functioning. Chronic stress has adverse effects on the body.
The body cells and tissues composition is vital for individuals’ health. In particular, it involves the percentages of lean and adipose body masses and the water volume. Chronic stress causes hormones hypersecretion and is associated with various diseases, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, anxiety, autoimmune disorders, depression, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and type II diabetes mellitus. Moreover, it leads to chronic systemic inflammation, increased fat mass, somatic and psychological manifestations, cellular dehydration, and frailty or osteosarcopenia (Stefanaki, Pervanidou, Boschiero, & Chrousos, 2018). For instance, water is a significant component of life that is used in thermoregulation, metabolism, lubrication, and as a shock absorber. During metabolism, water acts as the reactant, solution medium, and reaction product. Approximately 60% of an adult’s body mass constitutes water. The water ratio in infants is 75% to 80%, 60% to 65% in adolescents, and 65% to 75% in children and toddlers (Stefanaki et al., 2018). A human of average height and weight has an intracellular water volume of 60% and extracellular volume of 40% (Stefanaki et al., 2018). Specifically, the regulation of hydration is done by homeostatic mechanisms that occur between the brain, kidneys, and cardiovascular system. Chronic stress tampers with the homeostatic balance, which is retained by the volume of water uptake, water proportion in the food, water produced during metabolism, and the percentage excreted. Additionally, it disrupts the extracellular fluid compartment’s (ECF) osmotic pressure (Stefanaki et al., 2018). The hypothalamic osmoreceptors activate the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which is released by the pituitary gland. Stefanaki et al. assert that the release of ADH and ECF osmotic pressure elicits the thirst feeling (Stefanaki et al., 2018). However, chronic stress lead to the imbalance of ECF osmotic pressure, and delay is experienced in the release of ADH, which triggers a person’s thirst.
Skeletal muscle affects the pathways of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate turnover. Indeed, it acts as the

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