Separatism: Impacts of Canadian Political Debates Since Confederation (Research Paper Sample)
The federal government of Canada struggled to prevent Quebec which is dominated by French-speaking people from being an independent nation in two divisive and emotional referendums. Many Canadians were shocked when Prime Minister Stephen Harper convinced the Parliament to recognize Quebec as a nation. However, Mr. Harper argued that the Quebecois do not form an independent nation. It is legally difficult to determine the way Quebec could become a nation within the State of Canada. Conversely, Hessing and Summerville (2014) argued that the parliamentary decision interfered with the Separatist's pursuit of independence. The judgment served as an act of reconciliation and the recognition of Quebecers as a nation with personal cultures language and identity. The analysis paper, therefore, assesses if recognition of Quebec as a nation by parliament in 2006 interfered with the thirst of separatists for independence.source..
The federal government of Canada struggled to prevent Quebec which is dominated by French-speaking people from being an independent nation in two divisive and emotional referendums. Many Canadians were shocked when Prime Minister Stephen Harper convinced the Parliament to recognize Quebec as a nation. However, Mr. Harper argued that the Quebecois do not form an independent nation. It is legally difficult to determine the way Quebec could become a nation within the State of Canada. Conversely, Hessing and Summerville (2014) argued that the parliamentary decision interfered with the Separatist's pursuit of independence. The judgment served as an act of reconciliation and the recognition of Quebecers as a nation with personal cultures language and identity. The analysis paper, therefore, assesses if recognition of Quebec as a nation by parliament in 2006 interfered with the thirst of separatists for independence.
Impacts of Canadian Political Debates Since Confederation
It is fundamental to understand the influence of Canadian political debates since confederation as it shaped the views of separatists movements to rally for Quebec independence. Confederation debates were supported by universities as well as Social Science and Humanities Research Councils in Canada. It influenced political arguments in the nation as it focused on projects that revealed the origins of Canada and how it existed. For example, Canadian policies began to reflect on treaties the British Crown negotiated with Indigenous people in Canada. The early agreements made all Canadians to be united by treaties. In other words, colonial, federal and indigenous texts stimulated political awareness and ancient grievance among Quebec people. Politicians can also understand the conflicting vision of each province as it entered into a confederation between 1865 and 1949 (Gagnon and Lachapelle, 1996).
Analysis of Recognition of Quebec as a Nation and Thirst of Separatists for Independence
Hessing and Summerville (2014) argued that the thirst for independence in Quebec, made the number of separatists to thin down because of rhetoric which emanated from the federal election. Similarly, the authors claims that Duceppe, one of the strong leaders in the separatist party nearly lost every seat in the election that took place on October, 19. Polls in Canada revealed that the sovereignty movement was strong and alive in Quebec. However, King and Sancy (2015), debated that support for independence did not amount to voting for a separatist party. For instance, federalist Liberals defeated the sovereigntist parti Quebecois irrespective of the numerous individuals that approved independence.
In the view of Medeiros and Chhim (2015), sovereignty movement targeted youths and left-leaning voters. It also used its power to denounce the suggested Energy East pipeline as well as criticized the New Democratic party, which was the greatest rival. On the other hand, Connolly (2013) claimed that separatists were a movement with the focus of developing an Islamic State that should not be acceptable in Canada. Besides, the authors argued that the authorities in Canada should stop the sovereigntists from running ads which decry niqab as intolerable in the life of citizens. King and Sancy (2015) stated that the act is a risky strategy that could alienate separatists youths who had their priorities on the environment. The outcome is that such youths would distance themselves from xenophobic movements which were in line with PQ's contentious Charter of Values (Hessing & Summerville, 2014).
Medeiros and Chhim (2015) were critical of the Charter of Values because they had the potential of barring employees from accessing judges. Moreover, it deneid day-care workers the opportunity to wear religious symbols. However, the authors had no concrete position on niqab which could make youths to believe that separatists supported the Charter of Values (McRoberts, 2001). It is also notable that independence of Quebec made separatists to have a lot of challenges and fight for relevance. For instance, Julie Malo, an environmental consultant in Chicoutimi argument that her generation was concerned about creating a sustainable Quebec rather than discussing face-covering. Gagnon and Lachapelle (1996) debated only a few youths were focused on the creation of independent Quebec which embraces diversity and upholds global standards rather than critiquing niqab.
Analysis of Quebec Nationalist Sentiments and Independence from Canada
The political battle between Quebec and other parts of Canada is mainly due to the desire for recognition. In the last 40 years, Quebec administration has been demanding the approval of dualism as the main foundation for Canadian state. The tabling of Tremblay Commission took place in 1956 and from that moment, the political leaders in Quebec have pursued the objective of getting the approval of Quebec as a nation (Gagnon & Lachapelle, 1996). However, separatists demanded that Quebec should be a state with special status in the Canadian Federal.
Assessment of Sovereignty-Association and Full Independence
On the level of the Federal, a conservative called Stephen Harper governed Canada since 2006. Harper had the western viewpoints on the confederation. Besides, most Westerners supported the arguments of Bourassa that Canada began as a dual nation. Hessing and Summerville (2014) stated that Quebec and Ontario dignitaries established Canada before there was Western province to join Confederation. The key agenda was to penetrate the Eastern control and secure the resources in the Wests' population. However, King and Sancy (2015) viewed Canada's confederation settlement to be a representation of an instrument of justice. Harper has the same worldview, but he does not utilize Laurentian consensus. That was the platform under which Liberal Ontario and elites of Quebec monopolized the processes of making national policy.
The Ability of the Separatists to Translate the Nationalists Sentiments into Support
The separatist had a strong power of amassing support due to well-calculated slogan and vibrancy. Most people that fought against national oppression were not cabinet ministers, negotiators at federal-provincial conferences, and parliamentary politicians. They were workers, youths, and women who led the 1967-1970 Quebeckers battles and they were dominated by the tendency of socialism and independence. They convinced most followers that it was necessary for Quebec to achieve independence so that it could be a socialist nation.
The Compelling Sentiments of the Separatists Movements
First, the separatist movement argued that Francophones which were the majority in Quebec were being mistreated in the Federal of Canada. In 1962, Donald Gordon, the president of CN, stated that he did not need Francophones in the company. The chauvinist statement led to public protests in the entire Quebec. The separatists came up with slogans such as “A workers' Quebec" and “Quebec for the Quebecois” which were rallying demonstrations for thousands of workers, women and young people. The separatists' movements organized unions and demanded the end of national oppression. They also wanted the right to communicate in French at the workplace, and the end chauvinism as well as the privileges that of English-Canadian citizens (Medeiros & Chhim, 2015).
The next sentiment was that French was insecure in Federal Canada, therefore, the sovereignty of Quebec would give Quebecers the freedom to learn and socialize in their language. For instance, hundreds of thousands of separatists protested against Bill 63. The Bill 63 gave parents the freedom to select the language that teachers were to use to educate their children. On the other hand, it had no impact on the privileges that the English language had in learning institutions and economic life (Medeiros & Chhim, 2015).
The Arguments of Separatists that Were not Convincing
Quebec separatists demonstrated that they have strong support for free trade. King and Sancy (2015) noted that the absence of Quebec would have made Canada-United States free trade agreement impossible. As a sovereign nation, the gross domestic product, free trade made Quebec be the strongest participant in the Organization for Economic Corporation and Development. On the other hand, Medeiros and Chhim (2015) made two attempts to analyze the dynamics of Quebec separatists. The separatists' movements were anchored on two propositions. The first one was the fear that the union used to inspire Quebeckers and confidence that came with secession. In a democratic society, unilateral secession is impossible because it is unlikely for the two perceptions to be simultaneous.
The unconvincing arguments of separatists in Quebec was that they could have a defensive cultural secessionism. The fear-confidence framework offered two predictions (Gagnon & Lachapelle,1996). First, the fear of cultural assimilation stimulated the support for separatists agenda to have an independent Quebec. Secondly, fear of assimilation came from factors that lowered the confidence of smooth separation. According to Hessing and Summerville(2014), the Canadian federation made the French-speaking Quebeckers have linguistic insecurity. Duchesne and Erfle (2003) reviewed secessionists movements and affirmed that language was second to religion in Canada as a reference to nationality until the 1960s.
Besides, the Parti Quebecois was formed in 1968 and came to power in 1976 which was a period marked by profound linguistic insecurity. The separatists found it convincing to tell Quebecers that independent French-speaking nation would secure the French language. The fear of Engl...
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