Significant Difference of Gender & Cloth Color on Advertisements (Research Paper Sample)
For this assignment, you will be completing a content analysis. Your content analysis
will be driven by two research questions based on media directed towards children. Your
questions may be on just about anything involving this topic – that is up to you. You may cover
anything from television shows to websites to advertisements. The only stipulation is that it
must have something to do with media directed toward children. But here are some examples of
what you might ask:
Is there a difference between Burger King and McDonald’s for the presence of children in
Is there a difference between Sesame Street and Paw Patrol for amount of educational content?
These are very broad research questions (yours will be much more specific), but they all
have one important similarity – they are studying differences. This is because you will be doing
a chi-square analysis to determine if you have found a significant difference.
It is important to note that your chi-square analysis should include only two variables, but
these variables must have at least two levels. For example, in the research question listed above,
you have two variables – Variable One is the fast food restaurant. This variable has two levels –
Burger King or McDonald’s. Note that you could have many more levels (or groups) within this
variable like Wendy’s, Arby’s, Subway, etc. Variable Two is the presence of children. This
doesn’t look like it, but it also has two levels – Children are present, or children are not present.
In this example, you might watch ten commercials from each brand and then count how
many commercials have children in them, and how many don’t. You would then compare, using
a chi-square analysis, to see if there is a significant difference between Burger King and
McDonald’s for presence of children in their ads.
This assignment will be completed in four different parts: your literature review, your
method, your results, and your discussion. Your paper will be a total of about 4 full pages and
will be done in APA format (you must include a title page and references, but no abstract is
ASSESSMENT OF SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE OF GENDER AND CLOTH COLOUR ON ADVERTISEMENTS MADE BY WOOLWORTH AND WALMART
Competitors make use of strategic planning and advertisements to be able to attract customers. Advertisement has since time in memorial taken a first lead in ensuring strategic market positioning as it has been termed as a strong marketing strategy. According Brunn, (2006) competitors will make use of strategies that would be similar since targe the same population. Children has been a major target of the clothing industry due to the rising population, demand, and changes in tastes and preferences. As such companies have to aggressively participate in advertising children clothing to leap a bigger market share (Luiz et.al, 2011). The advertisements are done on both male and female clothing. However, there has been complaints over the years on some products like children cloths from Woolworth due to gender stereotypes. There has also been complains of colours where most claimed that they posted only one colour like pick for girls only without any differentiation.
Research as shown that gender-based stereotype as played a key part in changes and preferences among parents when it comes to making children cloth purchases at some of the very renowned brands across the globe. According to Petrovic & Hamilton (2006) children have been seen to have high reference for clothing that is attractive. Besides, they do not care about fashion and their need is eye attracting products. Claims by parents for plain clothes at Woolworth has been acting as competitive strategy for Walmart. The two companies have attempted making use of advertisements to be able to capture the needs of the customers. It is however not known whether in their advertisements they have considered boys equally to girls and if the type of cloth they advertise has colour differentials to make them attractive to children. Different parent has posted on YouTube and twitter complaining of little colour differentiation (Petrovic & Hamilton, 2006). They have also complained of lack of choices in the clothes of both companies from season to season. Especially mothers with girl children have been posting complins with regards to colour and lack of varieties clothing for their girls especially from the age of 6yrs to 12yrs. Tus the current study was undertake with a main objective of assessing of significant difference of gender and cloth colour on advertisements made by Woolworth and Walmart
This would be achieved through the following specific research questions
1 Is there any significant difference in number of males and females’ children involved in cloth advertisements by Woolworth and Walmart?
2 Is there any significant difference in type of clothing by colour advertised on children between Woolworth and Walmart?
The current analysis was undertaken with an objective assessing for any significant difference tween the advertisements presented by Woolworth and Walmart. Specifically, the study was looking and gender differentials in the advertisement as well as preference for advertising coloured and plain clothing.
The analysis was thus targeted to children advertisements of the age of 6 years to 12 years. A multistage sampling technique was employed. At the first stage, a purposive sampling technique was employed to select the two companies that are major competitors in cloth industry. At the second stage, a sampling frame was developed and random samples were generated. Sampling was done following the sampling proportionate to size.
To arrive at the sample, first the researcher viewed clothing advertisements done by Woolworth and Walmart on children clothing within a span of 6 months beginning July 2019 to December 2019. This was through assessing the company site, YouTube posts, and google. A total of 15 advertisements had been made by Woolworth while 20 had been made by Walmart. The researcher calculated the total number of boys involved as well as girls involved in the advertisement. More to it, data with respect to whether the advert was done on plain or coloured clothing was collected. A total of 60 boys and 50 girls participated in the advert. It was also revealed that a total of 40 plain clothing was advertised and 30 patterned clothing was also advertised. Samples through proportionate by size method was used. This led to a sample of 20 boys and 10 girls being sampled. To get a sample on the type of clothing, a total of 20 pain clothing was chosen, and 10 patterned clothing. This led to a sample of 30 on each category item.
He results indicate that about 66.7% were boys and 33.3% were girls.
Table 1: gender
As shown on the table below, the results indicated that about 42.9% advertisements came from Woolworth while about 57.1% were advertisements made by Walmart within the same period.
Table 2: outlets
The results also showed that about 66.6% of the children advertised plain clothing while about 33.3% of them advertised patterned clothing.
Table 3: cloth type
Research question 1 asked for any significant difference in number of males and females children involved in cloth advertisements by Woolworth and Walmart. The analyses of the chi-square test revealed that Walmart had a high number of boys and girls participating in the advertisements compared to Woolworth. In total for both outlets, boys had more cloth advertisements compared to girls. The chi-square test results showed existence of a significant difference at 11.26 (1) between the groups. This was an indication of existence of a significant difference in the number of advertisements done by Woolworth and Walmart for boy’s ad girls.
Point of sale * gender Cross tabulation
Point of sale
Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Exact Sig. (2-sided)
Exact Sig. (1-sided)
Fisher's Exact Test
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