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Use, Validity, and Recommendations for Improvement (Research Paper Sample)
MMPI-2: Use, Validity, and Recommendations for Improvement
MMPI-2: Use, Validity, and Recommendations for Improvement
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is one of the most famous personality questionnaires, which consists of 567 claims (Drayton, 2009). The test requires a person to choose if a given statement is true or false in relation to them. It is believed that this test is useful, practical, and provides accurate information about the personality, as well as determines psychological characteristics (Drayton, 2009). These test has been widely used in different cultures and this has mad people question its validity.
I think the assessment was not completely accurate regarding my personality. I believe it rather provides a generalized picture of the character of the subject. I came up with such conclusion due to several reasons. Firstly, I noted about myself that I wanted to choose the socially accepted answers. This fact causes a doubt about the reliability of found results. Secondly, due to the fact the test contains of a huge amount of questions, the level of tiredness influenced the attention and responsible attitude towards the answers. Therefore, I can suggest that results of the test may be not completely accurate regarding me.
This has been supported by previous studies. Meyers, Mills, and Volkert (2002) tried to develop validity scales for this test. They found that the scale has a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 86%. The authors called for a need to have multiple validity scales in order to have accurate profile representation. In addition, Gordon (2011) has found that the test lacks completeness and steadiness when the True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) scale, as well as Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN) scale are looked at. These scales indicated that the use of true or false answers can give, like in my case, unnecessarily low or high scores. Additionally, the test has been found to have fixed responding, random responding, and non-responding, which hamper its validity (UM, 2015).
During completing the test, I have faced some difficulties. A subject has to answer to several intimate questions. Even taking into account that no one will read and analyze the answers, this fact causes confusion. In addition, the need to make categorical decisions often caused difficulties. A number of claims are formulated difficult for understanding and do not allow an optional answer. As a result, the subject is forced to give the answer which is close to his or her real life but is not exactly accurate. Also, the process of interpreting the results is a complex task.
The test is good and useful because it has been tested on a significant number of respondents. A huge amount of questions hides several scales for checking the sincerity and truthfulness of responses. The specificity of MMPI-2 relies on the availability of three scales of control. It is a method of checking negligence, misunderstanding, or falsification of responses, as well as an attitude to the questionnaire. For example, there is the scale of "lie,” which tells the intention of the subject to introduce him- or herself in a more positive light. Also, the maximum formalization of the test is particularly useful in mass assessment. An important advantage of MMPI-2 is the possibility of making an averaged profile of any group of subjects.
MMPI is one of the most popular diagnostics tools. However, it has a number of weaknesses in relation to the reliability of the results. Particularly, they are highlighted when the test is used in the cross-cultural differences. Personal characteristics and even mood of the subject at the moment of passing the test may strongly influence the truth of the results.
Usage MMPI-2 for “Gulf Arab Personality” presents considerable difficulties because this multifactor methodology contains claims relating to all important aspects of psychological, psychiatric, and somatic spheres, and covers a wide range of issues related to lifestyle, social and cultural values. Cross-cultural and linguistic differences are huge. Limitations to the application of the test can be divided into linguistic problems and problems related to the actual content of the statements. Many statements contain the names of the books, games, which are popular in the English-speaking countries. These aspects require significant changes to test “Gulf Arab Personality”. Also, there is a need for change or complete replacement of a number of statements, which are losing their meaning in conditions of Arab culture.
This test has been used in the Gulf or Arabic states before; It has been used Turkey in the clinical practice, in clinical and personality assessments (Butcher, 2015). It has also been used in Iran, Pakistan, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, and Syria, but its use was after it was translated into the local language in each country. The tests were based on populations of personality tests and clinical tests. The wide usage of this test shows it was widely acceptable. The test has passed through revolutions and edition to meet the limitations of previous editions. No actual validity tests have been conducted on it, but the limitations in previous editions needed revisions. Following this wide usage, I think this test is useful.
The Usage MMPI-2 for “Gulf Arab Personality” is effective only if it has been translated in the local language. For example, in the Gulf countries stated above, the test was first translated into the main languages spoken locally in those nations, and that contributed to its usage and effectiveness. Although cross-cultural and linguistic differences are huge, they can be avoided through effective translation making the test valid. Limitations to the application of the test can be divided into linguistic problems and problems related to the actual content of the statements (Butcher, 2015). Effective translation is key to the usage of this test in the Gulf/Arabic regions (Butcher, 2015).
In summary, this paper has evaluated the application of MMPI-2 in the conduction of personality tests at the personal and cultural levels. The person taking test is a...
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