6 pages/≈1650 words
Internet Policing: Limitations Of Previous Studies (Research Paper Sample)
The research is to establish forms of internet crime caused by deliberate abuse and misuse, and advance a suitable way of internet policing among other things.source..
In the advent generation, internet has become very essential towards peopleâ€™s lives. In therefore, it has becoming a virtual world. Based on that there must be a way to police the internet and moderate what has to be uploaded and down loaded just as the coexistence of people in the real world.
Certain conceptualization of the internet policing is viewed as a police going round viewing into your computer. It is not really the way it looks; policing involves having policies and people who are there to check on the posts made daily. Some countries like china have achieved a milestone on the project of the installation of firewall such that if you are got on such instances of posts you will be imprisoned.
For one to be gotten guilt investigation and evidences have to be provided. So the study will mainly concentrate on the part of the policies and ways of controlling misuse and abuse of the virtual world. The abuse and misuse may include hacking, security breaches and abusive posts.
More of the internet has been viewed on the beneficial side of it without considering theeffects the internet through all stages of life from young to old.
Limitations of Previous studies
The researchers have faced challenges on the perception of the police officers on the child materials as work stressors this is mainly faced during the interviews and interviews so police do not concentrate on the big work load of child materials.
The view and attitude towards the conceptualized police force and the operationalized police force has been misinterpreted that most users have certain favor to themselves and not to the policing part.
Leaders transformational and decision influences the relationship between the police so for information to be gathered most prefer to be on the side of the leader and base their replies on the leaders favor.
Aims and objectives
1 To establish forms of internet crimes caused by deliberate misuse and abuse.
2 To establish and advance suitable ways for internet policing.
3 To obtain quantitative data on the controls and policies from the control firms and the users.
4 To give the suggestions and recommendations on the policies that must be put in place to counter the problems on the internet policing
2 Literature review
The â€œinformation technologyâ€ has been around for half a century, although the police have started applying it in their investigations or in the criminal justice system just recently (Brown, 2000; Chan, 2001), this also places them way behind the private sector (Dunworth, 2000; Reuland, 1997).
Internet policing has emerged as a new approach to monitor and counter crimes committed through the internet or in the internet. This has become necessary due to the vast number of illegal activities being conducted online such as online frauds, unauthorized access of information or spreading of information that may cause harm. Most of the crimes done through the internet are basically cyber-crimes. Brenner (2004d, p. 115) defines cybercrime as â€œthe use of computer technology to commit or to facilitate the commission of unlawful acts, or crimesâ€.
The internet police have been able to use the internet to investigate crimes that would take a longer time to close. The development of the Internet and the proliferation of computer technology has created new platform for those who want to engage in illegal activity (Brenner, 2004d; Goodman & Brenner, 2002, p. 11).In the recent times, the police officers are able to uncover activities of criminals who use the internet to reveal or brag about their crimes. Police departments all over the world are using the Internet to their advantage, as social networks are proving to be the perfect crime-solving partners. In this current century where there is rampant oversharing, and perpetrators mostly leave trails so wide it makes it easier to capture them.
CRIME AND CYBER-CRIME
Crime is negative aspect of life in a society which includes activities such as robbery, theft, corruption, assault, fraud and rape. This desperate activities are usually are connected in with the words â€˜the doing of wrongâ€™ which is commonly identified as immoral behavior. Though, in reality there are many activities which are perceived to be wrong but are not crimes, poverty which is deemed immoral and described as a crime against humanity. Some other non-immoral actions are however also seen as crimes such as tax evasions in some cases or breaking simple traffic rules (Croall, 1998).
A crime can therefore be defined as an act of participating in actions that contravenes the laws set up to protect and guide the way of life. The individuals who are conduct this crimes and are found guilty are considered to be criminals (Lacey et al. , 1990). In recent time the internet has increasingly become a favorite platform for criminals to commit crimes.
Mendez (2005, p. 513) states â€œin the near future most of the crime will have a cyber componentâ€. Technology has become the symbol and target of crime (Savona & Mignone, 2004).
OVERVIEW OF THE INVESTIGATIVE PROCESS AND ACTIONS
Criminal investigation has been a topic of study for academics and practitioners alike, and is defined as â€˜the process of legally gathering evidence of a crime that has been or is being committedâ€™ (Brown, 2001:3).
A reactive police investigation typically begins when an offence is brought to the attention of the police. After this, the investigation usually advances sequentially through stages comprising different actions. However, there are differences between crime types in terms of the amount of resources allocated to investigations and the actions carried out. Serious crimes such as murders usually have extensive resources available, while minor crimes receive less attention from the police (Feist and Newish, 2004).Some crimes require either basic or advanced technology such as those done through the internet. Elements critical of a consistent law enforcement response to reported acts of cybercrime include:
* A legal framework that is effective enough to maintain a balance between investigative power and privacy of individual.
* Ready access of investigative materials in practice and means of obtaining evidence from third parties involved such as internet service providers.
* Sufficient training and equipping of the police officers in countering crime. (UNODC, 2013)
Legal frameworks in investigation of general internet crimes require a clear scope of enforcing power in order to ensure they follow available legal parameters. The actions involved in the investigative process include:
* Enforcement of Law through search of computer data.
* Seizure of computer data and any other evidential information from the internet.
* Order the supply of subscriberâ€™s information.
* Order supply of stored traffic data and content data.
* Real time tracking and collection of traffic data and content data.
* Use of remote computer forensics tools.
* Direct law enforcement access to computer data access to Initial contact and initial response (UNODC, 2013).
Hypotheses which can be derived from the general theories of internet policing.
* Internet policing is the best method of dealing with internet related crimes.
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