Transformation of Japonica Rice with JcZFP8 and the Bacterial Glycolate Catabolic Pathway to Increase Yield (Research Proposal Sample)
The experiment is divided into two parts. The first part involves the cloning of the gene JcZFP8 from Jatropha (J) curcas into the expression vector with a specific promoter and a selectable marker.
The second part of the study deals with the addition of the bacterial glycolate catabolic pathway into three expression vectors which are then transformed into Japonica rice using the agrobacterium mediated transformation using the floral dip method.
BTH 3820 Plant Biotechnology
Plant Biotech Grant Proposal
Name: KANWAL KHALID
Student ID: 27510980
Course ID: Bachelor of Science, S2000
Transformation of Japonica Rice with JcZFP8 and the Bacterial Glycolate Catabolic Pathway to Increase Yield
Cereal crops are associated with a global agricultural production of greater than 60%; rice, wheat and maize have high significance has cereal crops (Harlan 1995, pp. 30-31). As much as 500 million tons are made globally and the daily per capita usage is approximately as much as 1.5 kg A significant portion of cultivated rice is utilized by the human population; a significant portion rely on rice for 50% of their caloric intake Thus, rice is an overwhelmingly important crop and is consumed in large amounts in many Asian counties such as China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Indonesia, forming an important component of the diet (Goff et al. 2002).
In many of these Asian countries as well as some African countries where rice is consumed, the population has been increasing rapidly. The improvements in rice yields resulting from the Green Revolution have been useful. However, in light of the sharp population increase from the 1960s to the present time in Eastern Asia (Fig. 1) as well as the United Nations claim that the world population is expanding and will rise to 8 billion by the next 6 years, there is a need for useful application to increase the yield of food crops to accommodate for the dietary and nutritional needs of the growing population.
Figure 1. Graph showing the population increase in Eastern Asia from the Green Revolution (1960s) to the present time (2018)
Thus, there has been a large increase in population while the arable land has not undergone the same increase. Consequently, there is a severe danger that present food production techniques will soon not be able to provide for the needs of the growing population. Moreover, there is a continuous threat to food production by changing environmental conditions (Lobell & Gourdji 2012). Innovative biotechnology techniques and genetic crop engineering provide promising results by improving yields to provide for the needs of the growing population in light of drastic changes in environmental conditions (Long, Marshall-Colon & Zhu 2015).
Rice was first grown as a food crop about 10, 000 years ago. Ever since then, there have been continual efforts to improve rice by introduction of beneficial alleles by crossing parent varieties with desired characteristics resulting in rice that have the beneficial phenotype. This form of crossing based on Mendelian genetics was widely implemented in the last century. However, while the phenotypes of the rice produced can be controlled to a degree, the molecular and cellular pathways which govern the genetics of the desired trait are not appreciated (Yamamoto, Yonemaru & Yano 2009).
The general plant structure and its leaf characteristics are significant traits that dictate that amount of light received that can be used for photosynthetic activity; The photosynthetic efficiency of the plant is highly dependent upon its growth and can specify crop yield. Thus, the focus on improving developmental features is the key to advancing crop yield and its nutritional value.
The Green Revolution of the 1960s shed light on the increased yield resulting from crossing two dwarf varieties; lowering plant height would lead to decreased lodging and an increase in the tillers produced. This would directly lead to an increase in yield and increased tillers would result in a greater surface area for photosynthesis to occur. Consequently, greater food production occurs, and a larger quantity is transported from the source and sink (Mathan, Bhattacharya & Ranjan 2016).