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Improvement of Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) (Research Proposal Sample)


My third Sample in computer science. Type of service: Writing from scratch Work type: Research proposal Deadline: 30 Aug, 10:48 PM (-4320h) Academic level: Master\'s Subject or discipline: Computer science Title: Writer\'s choice Number of sources: 11 Provide digital sources used: No Paper format: MLA # of pages: 9 Spacing: Double spaced # of words: 2475 # of slides: ppt icon 0 Paper details: We want that the writer works on a topic to improving energy efficiency in wireless sensor network (WSN). In this research paper ,the writer can propose an approach to improve the energy efficiency in WSN. Then,evaluate and compare the network performance of the proposed approach with that of the traditional approach.

Improvement of Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
Wireless Sensor Networks are composed of spatially distributed and divided autonomous sensors that aimed at monitoring environmental and physical conditions; for instance pressure, sound and temperature. This is so they can pass data cooperatively through the designated network to a specific main location. The wireless sensor network is mainly built up of nodes. They usually start from few to several hundreds or thousands with each node connected to one or several sensors. Each individual sensor network node is made to incorporate several parts. These parts are a microcontroller, a radio transceiver consisting of an internal antenna, an electronic circuit that is meant for interfacing with an energy source and the sensors. The energy source is a battery or can be an embedded type of energy harvesting.
The basic topology of the wireless sensor networks varies from advanced and complicated multi-hop wireless mesh networks to simple star networks. The basic propagation mechanisms between the network hops can be flooding or routing (Pattem et al, pp. 28-35). Wireless Sensor Networks have been used for numerous differentiated purposes such as surveillance in remote and volcanic areas, military applications, active research areas with numerous conferences and workshops.
The complications and shortcomings that come with the wireless sensor networks are numerous. One of the major complications that come with Wireless Sensor Networks is the lack of energy efficiency which is responsible for the retardation of the network. However, there are existing proposals of how small sensor networks can efficiently achieve energy by the usage of a single individual mobile sink. The mobile sink lacks a wide range to be used in the form of base station. However, it has a rechargeable battery and hence can be a collector for data from sensor nodes and eventually transmitting it simultaneously to the base station. The transmission is usually done by the use of cellular network or by the use of internet. The proposed researched approaches include clustering that is followed by gathering data and forwarding it by the mechanism of mobile sink. This is one of the proposals of improving the energy efficacy that is needed in the wireless sensor networks.
Improvement of Energy Efficacy in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
Since the wireless sensor networks are made up of small energy deficient sensor nodes, it becomes challenging and difficult process to retain and maintain energy levels of those particular nodes. It is usually difficult to retain them for a long duration of time. They are usual equipped with insufficient radio and computing communication capabilities. This proposal is aimed at reducing the power consumption of the working nodes. This is done by concentration on the radio which basically has four states differentiated operations at various different time intervals. The proposed method of energy efficiency improvement in WSN is by scheduling and clustering.
The size of the sensor nodes used in Wireless Sensor Networks is usually small hence their power supply units should be equally small (Rathna & Sivasubramanian, pp.167). They should also be able to effectively support the nodes’ operations without performance degradation. The communication protocol applicable should not by any chance consume more energy since it should be made to have light weight. Hence, the suggestion here is that the use of a good scheduling and power consumption should be kept vividly in mind. Scheduling protocols will keep only a specified subset of nodes to remain active while other nodes will remain in sleep state or the inactive state. An effective protocol will be deemed effective and efficient when it is able to keep only a minimum number of nodes actively working at a given instant.
For any given wireless sensor network, the scheduling protocol should be able to use the techniques that involve narrow band modulations. For instance, low rate of data transfer is enough in environmental monitoring application in any given WSN. The scheduling protocols for the Wireless Sensor Networks for Medium Access Control must have the following:
Good throughput efficacy.
Low rate of data transfer.
Reduced hardware complexity.
Narrowband modulation techniques
Low transmission delay, low access delay and eventually low overhead.
There is the TMDA based scheduling. It is able to allocate separate time slots for each node so that the node can access the medium and be able to send sensed data (Christophe & Wendi 153). Alternatively, it can be able to forward the aggregated data through the medium. There are some already relatively efficient scheduling protocols; they include:
The B-MAC which is a Mac Protocol. It is able to introduce the first simple Low Power Listening protocols. They are abbreviated as LPL protocols. However, it has no capabilities of supporting all radios.
The WiseMAC. It is enhanced such that it can reduce the preamble length by the mechanism of sending data limited to its neighbors. However, it also has no capabilities of supporting all radios.
The de-centralized and the centralized sensor scheduling protocols have the capabilities to concentrate on both power coverage and conservation. They are specially designed for surveillance military purposes.
D-MAC protocols send or stagger ‘send and receive’ timing slots for individual package exchange to the available paths with adjacent neighbors.
The X-MAC performs just like the B-MAC. The only difference is that it has an additional preamble fixed length that uses advertisement cycles to send data.
The MIX-MAC scheduling protocol makes the Wireless Sensor Networks to incorporate differentiated MAC protocol types dependent on the situations such as packet sizes.
The SpeakMAC is composed of the SpeakMAC-D and the SpeakMAC-B. It aims at reduction of the energy consumed in the process of sending data to the active nodes. This is done through the reduction of the preamble size.
Distributed protocols and inverse Log scheduling. The last assigns transmission times that are long for the specific sensor nodes that face worst and slightly ineffective channel conditions (Nikolaos, pp. 322-343).
Sift (12) which is a MAC protocol that is designed on the basis of sending high priority information or important information first with reduced delay. Afterwards, it will send the low priority information lastly.
TDMA scheme and pseudocode
In this proposal, the TDMA scheme used is the (TDM) scheme, which allows for the implementation of convergecast and cascading of timeslots. These are based on the reduction of the tree networks to multi-line networks. The scheme for TDMA is based on a time division multiplexing scheme which offers different time slots to separate data streams and follows a repeated pattern. In this scheme, in any given line branch, each node understands it hop distance and can schedule itself to be in one of the following states; T for transmit, R for receive and I for Idle. These are rotated in time and arranged in a way that allows the packets to flow in a propagation wave towards the sink. However, the scheme has certain drawbacks, such as, its complexity which increases significantly when it extends progressively to deal with more practical scenarios.
In the pseudocode, the system uses an event time slot (t) which is triggered by a common pulse. The modes eventually raise the event carrier_sense () after detecting that the received energy levels has reached a threshold in which the radio unit is expected to succeed in carrier sense locking. Therefore, it is assumed that the timeslots allow the transmission of data packets through the use of transmit (t) as well as, receive (r) primitives. In addition, the signaling or beacons are considered as short packets which include no data load. Therefore, before the transmission of the data packet in the time slot (t), the scheme uses beacons to single out the node intention to transmit the packet within (t). Consequently, within the convergence period, several nodes can be assigned to the same timeslot.
Wake-Up/Sleep Scheduling
The best scheduling protocol that will enable energy efficiency in the WSN one that is synchronous and has wake-up/sleep scheduling protocol. This means that the wake-up/sleep scheduling sporadically has only specific nodes wake-up and receive or send. This is with all the other nods being in a sleep state. This works well while going for a switch active state to sleep mode, then from sleep state to active mode, checked condition is that the energy consumed for the switch will be low. This is when the energy consumed is compared with the state of being active.
Fig 1: Graphical Representation of Power Consumption Change by the Use of the Wake-Up/Sleep Scheduling

The scheduling protocol will be designed according to the node of the radio. The switching between the sleep and active states will be beneficial. This is because they will be able to improve the energy efficiency in the Wireless Sensor Networks by saving energy when all nodes are left in an active state.
Simulation parameters
Based on the model employed, the simulations are aimed at evaluating the performance of the proposed protocol. Therefore, the simulation parameters include the following;
Randomly deployed nodes which were attained through (x, y) locations based on uniform distribution.
The simulations were conducted with communication range equal to the double of the sensing range.
If the nodes number used in the application is large, then the aggregation of data has to be done. In the vent that all the nodes try to send more sensed data to the base station, additional energy will res...
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