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Research Proposal
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Perception of the Hospitality and Tourism Industry by Graduates of Pwani University (Research Proposal Sample)

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PERCEPTION OF THE HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM INDUSTRY BY GRADUATES OF PWANI UNVERSITY
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Research has been done examining graduates from specific institutions (Walsh & Taylor, 2007) as well as perceptions of current students and what they expect when they graduate (Richardson, 2009). Blomme, Van Rheede, and Tromp (2009) found differences between pre- and post-entry expectations of hospitality management graduates in the hospitality industry.
Researchers have found many hospitality graduates either never entered the industry, or left the industry with no intent to return (Blomme et al., 2009; King, McKercher, & Waryszak, 2003; Stalcup & Pearson, 2001; Walsh & Taylor, 2007). The purpose of this study is to evaluate causes and factors that are attracting or repelling graduates from joining the tourism and hospitality trade.
1.2 Problem Statement
Many Pwani University students are not keen to join the hospitality and tourism line even after being enrolled in a 4-year hospitality and tourism program. This suggests that there are factors that discourage students from joining the hospitality line. In other industries such as education, law, engineering and business-related industries, students who enrol are mostly from the corresponding courses.
According to Riley (1996) in Eric A. Brown, about 64 percent of employees in tourism and hospitality industry are either semi-skilled or unskilled. The industry consists of a number of diverse sectors including travel agencies, tour operators, transportation, accommodation, food and beverage, and attractions which require a variety of occupational skills. The consequence of this is that the industry will perform poorly and there will be very little innovations made.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
To evaluate reasons why a high percentage of Pwani University hospitality and tourism graduates do not enrol in the hospitality and tourism industry. The study seeks to understand the causes and factors that are attracting or repelling graduates from joining the tourism and hospitality trade.
1.4 Research Objectives
1 To evaluate the reasons why Pwani University hospitality and tourism graduates are disinclined to join the tourism and hospitality industry.
2 To recommend changes that the hospitality and tourism organisations should make concerning new-joiners.
3 To find out the industry that is taking the highest number of graduates.
1.4 Research Questions
1 What are the reasons for not pursuing a career in the hospitality and tourism industry?
2 What percentage of the students taking hospitality and tourism enroll in the hospitality and tourism industry?
3 Which industry is taking the highest percentage of the hospitality and tourism graduates who choose not to enroll in the hospitality and tourism industry?
1.5 Hypothesis
* 70% of students taking a degree course in hospitality and tourism in Pwani University do not pursue a career in the hospitality and tourism industry because of poor pay.
* 40% of the hospitality and tourism students do not enroll in the hospitality and tourism industry.
* The sales and marketing industry takes the highest percentage of hospitality and tourism graduates.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will identify the factors that are repelling hospitality and tourism management students from joining the hospitality and tourism industry. With this identification, the ministry of tourism and other concerned institutions can look for ways to encourage students to join the industry. This will ensure the presence of professionals in the industry, which will in turn, lead to better performance and increased profits.
The study will also identify the pull factors, which, the same institutions will increase and improve in order to strengthen the attraction to the industry. This will make it possible for hospitality and tourism students of, not only, Pwani University, but also, students of other institutions, to perceive the industry in a positive manner.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will cover graduates of Pwani University who took a degree course in hospitality and tourism. It will target both the ones in the hospitality and tourism industry as well as those that are not. The study will cover the students that are in the coastal region.
The study might also touch on key stake holders in the tourism sector such as the Ministry of East African Affairs, Commerce and Tourism so that a perfect view of what is being done to induce a better perception of the industry can be achieved.
1.8 Justification of the Study
Many students refrain from joining the hotel industry after graduation. It is further mentioned that up to 70% of staff leave the industry within the span of 6 years of joining the industry. Moreover, Lo (2005) brought up the issue that many hospitality courses are not in sync with the needs of the industry, resulting in a mismatch in expectations from the students. The study is set to capture the reasons for leaving the industry as well as not enrolling at all. This will prevent the industry from lugging behind and ensure constant innovations plus maximum output in form of profits and service quality.
1.9 Limitations and Delimitations
1.9.1 Limitations
The study has some limitations such as difficulties in contacting the students. This is so because the students are in different parts of the region and methods of communications like use cellphones and emails might have to be applied. This might result to a resource limitation of money. It's a bit expensive to communicate over the cellphone since there is a lot of information being passed between the researcher and the recipient.
1.9.2 Delimitations
My research will only cover graduates of Pwani University who were taking a course in hospitality and tourism. There are students who graduate from other courses and end up in the hospitality industry. The study will only focus on the ones who were in the hospitality and tourism department.
1.10 Assumptions of the Study
1 That the time allocated to administer the research will be enough to collect and analyze data.
2 That all the respondents will be willing to respond to the interviews honestly.
1.11 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
1.11.1 Theoretical Framework
The study is looking into perceptions and what influences perceptions, either negatively or positively. The theory that will be used in this study is a career perception theory which will explain the purpose of positive influence in order to encourage participation in an activity, which in this case is a career.
The theory that will best explain this is Holland's theory of career choice. J.L. Holland's theory of vocational choice considers the interrelationships between characteristics of an occupation and the personality characteristics of an individual. According to Holland (1985), individuals are attracted to a given career by their particular personalities and numerous variables found in their prospective backgrounds. People compare themselves with their perception of an occupation, and the subsequent acceptance or rejection of these comparisons establishes occupational preference. According to Zunker (1994) in Kimberly H. Councill, M.M.E(2004) , congruence of one's view of self with occupational preference establishes what Holland refers to as the modal personal style. This style “is a developmental process established through heredity and the individual's life history of reacting to environmental demands”
In other words, “individuals are attracted to a particular role demand of an occupational environment that meets their personal needs and provides them with satisfaction”
There are four basic assumptions that serve as the foundation for Holland's (1985) theory:
1 In our culture, most persons can be categorized as one of six types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional.
2 There are six kinds of environments: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional.
3 People search for environments that will let them exercise their skills and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable problems, and roles.
4 A person's behaviour is determined by an interaction between his personality (assumption 1) and the characteristics of his environment (assumption 2).
Another important aspect to Holland's theory is the importance of parental influence. “This influence is seen largely in terms of the environment parents create for their offspring, such as the biological features parents transmit, and the reinforcements and resources parents provide. These events very likely reflect the parental types and, thus, parental types should be transmitted to children”. Although research in this area has produced conflicting results, due in large part to the fact that “relationships between parents and the personalities and career types of offspring are very complicated” (Osipow & Fitzgerald, 1996, in Kimberly H. Councill, M.M.E(2004 ), Holland's theory maint

source..
Content:
PERCEPTION OF THE HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM INDUSTRY BY GRADUATES OF PWANI UNVERSITY
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Research has been done examining graduates from specific institutions (Walsh & Taylor, 2007) as well as perceptions of current students and what they expect when they graduate (Richardson, 2009). Blomme, Van Rheede, and Tromp (2009) found differences between pre- and post-entry expectations of hospitality management graduates in the hospitality industry.
Researchers have found many hospitality graduates either never entered the industry, or left the industry with no intent to return (Blomme et al., 2009; King, McKercher, & Waryszak, 2003; Stalcup & Pearson, 2001; Walsh & Taylor, 2007). The purpose of this study is to evaluate causes and factors that are attracting or repelling graduates from joining the tourism and hospitality trade.
1.2 Problem Statement
Many Pwani University students are not keen to join the hospitality and tourism line even after being enrolled in a 4-year hospitality and tourism program. This suggests that there are factors that discourage students from joining the hospitality line. In other industries such as education, law, engineering and business-related industries, students who enrol are mostly from the corresponding courses.
According to Riley (1996) in Eric A. Brown, about 64 percent of employees in tourism and hospitality industry are either semi-skilled or unskilled. The industry consists of a number of diverse sectors including travel agencies, tour operators, transportation, accommodation, food and beverage, and attractions which require a variety of occupational skills. The consequence of this is that the industry will perform poorly and there will be very little innovations made.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
To evaluate reasons why a high percentage of Pwani University hospitality and tourism graduates do not enrol in the hospitality and tourism industry. The study seeks to understand the causes and factors that are attracting or repelling graduates from joining the tourism and hospitality trade.
1.4 Research Objectives
1 To evaluate the reasons why Pwani University hospitality and tourism graduates are disinclined to join the tourism and hospitality industry.
2 To recommend changes that the hospitality and tourism organisations should make concerning new-joiners.
3 To find out the industry that is taking the highest number of graduates.
1.4 Research Questions
1 What are the reasons for not pursuing a career in the hospitality and tourism industry?
2 What percentage of the students taking hospitality and tourism enroll in the hospitality and tourism industry?
3 Which industry is taking the highest percentage of the hospitality and tourism graduates who choose not to enroll in the hospitality and tourism industry?
1.5 Hypothesis
* 70% of students taking a degree course in hospitality and tourism in Pwani University do not pursue a career in the hospitality and tourism industry because of poor pay.
* 40% of the hospitality and tourism students do not enroll in the hospitality and tourism industry.
* The sales and marketing industry takes the highest percentage of hospitality and tourism graduates.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will identify the factors that are repelling hospitality and tourism management students from joining the hospitality and tourism industry. With this identification, the ministry of tourism and other concerned institutions can look for ways to encourage students to join the industry. This will ensure the presence of professionals in the industry, which will in turn, lead to better performance and increased profits.
The study will also identify the pull factors, which, the same institutions will increase and improve in order to strengthen the attraction to the industry. This will make it possible for hospitality and tourism students of, not only, Pwani University, but also, students of other institutions, to perceive the industry in a positive manner.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will cover graduates of Pwani University who took a degree course in hospitality and tourism. It will target both the ones in the hospitality and tourism industry as well as those that are not. The study will cover the students that are in the coastal region.
The study might also touch on key stake holders in the tourism sector such as the Ministry of East African Affairs, Commerce and Tourism so that a perfect view of what is being done to induce a better perception of the industry can be achieved.
1.8 Justification of the Study
Many students refrain from joining the hotel industry after graduation. It is further mentioned that up to 70% of staff leave the industry within the span of 6 years of joining the industry. Moreover, Lo (2005) brought up the issue that many hospitality courses are not in sync with the needs of the industry, resulting in a mismatch in expectations from the students. The study is set to capture the reasons for leaving the industry as well as not enrolling at all. This will prevent the industry from lugging behind and ensure constant innovations plus maximum output in form of profits and service quality.
1.9 Limitations and Delimitations
1.9.1 Limitations
The study has some limitations such as difficulties in contacting the students. This is so because the students are in different parts of the region and methods of communications like use cellphones and emails might have to be applied. This might result to a resource limitation of money. It’s a bit expensive to communicate over the cellphone since there is a lot of information being passed between the researcher and the recipient.
1.9.2 Delimitations
My research will only cover graduates of Pwani University who were taking a course in hospitality and tourism. There are students who graduate from other courses and end up in the hospitality industry. The study will only focus on the ones who were in the hospitality and tourism department.
1.10 Assumptions of the Study
1 That the time allocated to administer the research will be enough to collect and analyze data.
2 That all the respondents will be willing to respond to the interviews honestly.
1.11 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
1.11.1 Theoretical Framework
The study is looking into perceptions and what influences perceptions, either negatively or positively. The theory that will be used in this study is a career perception theory which will explain the purpose of positive influence in order to encourage participation in an activity, which in this case is a career.
The theory that will best explain this is Holland’s theory of career choice. J.L. Holland’s theory of vocational choice considers the interrelationships between characteristics of an occupation and the personality ch...
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