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3 pages/≈1650 words
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Accounting, Finance, SPSS
Speech Presentation
English (U.S.)
MS Word
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Living Standards in Britain in the Mid-19th Century (Speech Presentation Sample)


This is a debate paper for economics history. We argue the living standards were not stagnant before 1850 in Britain, based on real wages. The purpose is to show the living standards are improving before the1850 and the downsides after the 1850s. I have uploaded a draft for this paper. Please use it as an outline for the paper. Let me know if you have any questions. Thanks.
Please only use these 2 references for the paper:
Williamson, J. (1980). Earnings Inequality in Nineteenth-Century Britain. The Journal of Economic History, 40(3), 457-475.
Clark, G. (2005). The Condition of the Working Class in England, 1209–2004. Journal of Political Economy, 113(6), 1307-1340.


Standard of Living Debate
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The conditions for the workers in England from 1209 to the mid-19th century are characterized by different concepts that affects living standards. Various sources have supported how the standards of living have been stagnant from 1209 to 1900 in England. Dominating factors such as real wages and the industrial revolution have been identified as significant elements that affected living standards. Despite all assumptions supported by different sources, one can debate that living standards were not stagnant before mid-19th century (1850) in England based on real wages.
Real wages in the economy determines changes in standards of living. Real wages help to measure the inflation rate, which dictates living standards in the economy. For example, if the total wages increase by 2 % and the inflation rates remain at the same percentage, the net effect is 0%. The argument is that real wages will dictate the inflation change, which shows the level and state of living standards. Considering the study of Clark (2005), one can argue that real wages have been the critical aspect of improving England's living standards. For instance, the author in the figure 2 has outlined how wage premium service was changing concerning workers' skills level. The evidence shows that highly skilled workers obtained higher wages than less qualified individuals. Through this assumption, it is clear that living standards have been improving from the 17th century to the mid-19th century. Also, Clark (2005) in figure 8 argue that with increased advancement in the industrial revolution, real wages also changed. The idea is that from 1770s to 1860

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