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Analysis of Paraquant in Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with Silver (Term Paper Sample)

Instructions:

Paraquant is an organic molecule also known as methyl viologen. Its chemical formula is
(C 6 H 7 N) 2 . It is classified under redox-active heterocycles and thus is highly soluble in water.
It is a globally used herbicide with high toxic levels. This is because it is not selective and is
quickly acting on plants. However, due to its redox ability, it is a highly toxic substance to
humans and animals 1 . Besides, it has been considered unfriendly to the environment. Thus, it
has been banned in several countries as it has been linked to Parkinson’s disease. Therefore,
Paraquant testing is very important to water quality testing as its possibility of being in water
is very high. Consequently, the likelihood of damaging the environments, humans, and
animals that highly rely on water for their sustainability is very high. Also, it has been linked
to deaths, infertility, and destruction of organelles. In addition, it exists in salts as well as
anions making its testing paramount.

source..
Content:


ANALYSIS OF PARAQUANT IN CARBON PASTE ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH SILVER
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INTRODUCTION
Paraquant is an organic molecule also known as methyl viologen. Its chemical formula is (C6H7N)2. It is classified under redox-active heterocycles and thus is highly soluble in water. It is a globally used herbicide with high toxic levels. This is because it is not selective and is quickly acting on plants. However, due to its redox ability, it is a highly toxic substance to humans and animals1. Besides, it has been considered unfriendly to the environment. Thus, it has been banned in several countries as it has been linked to Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, Paraquant testing is very important to water quality testing as its possibility of being in water is very high. Consequently, the likelihood of damaging the environments, humans, and animals that highly rely on water for their sustainability is very high. Also, it has been linked to deaths, infertility, and destruction of organelles. In addition, it exists in salts as well as anions making its testing paramount.
The technique that was applied by the author was measurement of the level of organic matter in water samples making use of silver based electrodes. This technique was important and was applied as the author was interested in describing the construction of silver particles-impregnated carbon paste electrode. Consequently, identify the level of Paraquant which is highly soluble in water and toxic. Thus, important in water testing and the quality of water to ensure water is not toxic. In addition, after use, it leaches first and dissolves into water thus its determination is paramount.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
There are different methods that have been applied in determination of Paraquant including chromatography, immunoassay, and polarography1. The author in the current analysis analysed Paraquant in carbon paste electrode modified with silver using electrochemical measurements. The analysis was undertaken following the voltammetric quantitative analysis where electrochemical characterisation and voltammetric performance were analysed following the differential pulse voltammetry. Electrochemical measurements were undertaken making use of eDAQ e-corder/potentiostat giving results in triplicates, and surface area was measured following the BET method.
There were different solutions that were used in the experiment including:
* Stock solution of 1.0 X 10-3 mol L-1 from Na2SO4 + C12H14Cl2N2. The preparation needs use of measuring cylinder to achieve need content. Then they are put in a mixing flask.
* Standard solutions prepared by dilution of stock solution with Na2SO4. This required use of a measuring cylinder as well as beaker to contain the different solutions for the electrochemical processes.
* 33813759906000Modified Carbon paste electrode: AgNO3 + CP Ag-CPE electrode. Ratio of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 10%, 15%, and 25% was used. To get the mixture an agate mortar was used. Heat was also necessary to heat the mixture for 6hrs in the kiln that needed use of a boiling flask. Electrode cavity as well as smoothening paper were needed to polish the headed mixture of AgNO3/CP. A pH-meter was necessary to adjust the pH levels
* 19431005778400Distilled water: H + O2 HO2. For the water, it was contained in a beaker.
* 24384006540500Sodium hydroxide: 2Na + 2HO2 2NaOH + H2. Use of a measuring cylinder as well as a beaker to contain the solution.
* 24955516731000Sodium sulphate: 2Na + 2H2SO4 2NaSO4 + 2H2 a composition of 0.1 mol L-1 was used in the experiment. Use of a measuring cylinder to achieve the 20 mL needed was in use.
* 21621757810400Silver nitrate: Ag + 2HNO3 2AgNO3 + H2
* 23717256858000Hydrochloric acid: 2NaCl + H2 2HCl + 2Na
* AgNO3/CP ratio of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 10%, 15%, and 25% was used. To get the mixture an agate mortar was used. Heat was also necessary to heat the mixture for 6hrs in the kiln that needed use of a boiling flask. Electrode cavity as well as smoothening paper were needed to polish the headed mixture of AgNO3/CP. A pH-meter was necessary to adjust the pH levels of both AgNO3/CP and AgNO3/CPE. Diffractometer was used for X-ray activities throughout the process.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
From the analysis making use of the unmodified carbon paste electrode (CPE) and modified carbon paste electrode (Ag-CPE), it was revealed that there exist a very sharp and well defined peaks. The limits ranged from -0.7 and -1.0 V. the measurements involving use of Ag-CPE showed higher sensitivity to Paraquant. Measurement of height and shapes of the differential voltammetry signal showed that the modified carbon paste electrode had higher height and curved shape due to volatility. The results indicated that the intensity of Paraquant went up to 50Hz, while the pulse heights signals increased by 72% to 25 mV. Although the pulse heights at the peak areas were seen to decline, generally the results indicated a linear relation that was stable. In addition, the results showed that the level of silver in the carbon paste influenced the Paraquant level which a revelled level of 5%.
The height of the experiment as well as the shape were in line with the work of1 following the adsorption process before the redox reactions occur. The signal were in line with past studies and the pulse heights in line with the work of2. The author made use of different Paraquant concentration with a detection limit and quantification limit of 3.3 X 10-9 and 10.7 X 10-9 mol L-1 for peak 1, while a detection and quantification limit of 6.4 X 10-9 and 21.1 X 10-9 mol L-1 for peak 2.
Following the voltammetry method the quantification method was done between -0.3 and -1.2 V. In addition, quantification of intensity was evaluated in the range of 5 to 50 Hz and the detection limit got to the acceptable limits of 50 Hz. With regards to the pulse height, the quantification limit were undertaken following a range of 10 to 35 mV where the detection limit showed a high range of 25 mV. In addition, the amplitude was investigated in the range of 1 to 15 mV, where the detection limit went to 5 mV. The scan incremented were quantified in the range of 20 to 80 ms, where the detection limits went up to 50 ms. Temperatures were employed at 200 0C, 300 0C, and 400 0C, while pH of 3 to 12 was used. The results revelled that the paramount pH ranged from 7.5 to 8.5.
From the analysis the author was able to make detection of interferences in the analysis. A major interference was noise through the differential pulse experiments. The noise did not however create major interference to the experiment. The analysis of modified electrode in determination of Paraquant was determined using competing ions under the same conditions. It was realised that existence of ions like Cd2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, and Fe2+ brought interferences in determination of Paraquant due to precipitation. To solve the interference, KCN was added into the electrolytic solution to ensure this interferences are inhibited.
The water sample used in the study included use of underground water. This kind of wate

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