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Reproductive System Analysis Essay (Term Paper Sample)


the task involved analyzing various aspects of the reproductive system using clear definitions and images.


The reproductive system
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Write down the scientific definitions of the following terms
Reproductive system
The reproductive system refers to the organ system that takes parts in reproduction and consists of the males' parts, testes, penis, and urethra. The female parts are made up of ovaries, uterus, vagina, and fallopian tubes. It is responsible for producing and fertilizing the sperm and eggs (Yoshimura & Barua, 2017).
Gametogenesis refers to the process in which gametes are produced in an organism. The diploid cells divide to yield haploid cells (Sifakis et al., 2017).
A hormone is a compound that is used by organisms that are multicellular for the organization, coordination, and control of the various functions of their cells. Hormones control everything in the body, including metabolism and behavior, and are essential for the organism's survival.
Gametes refer to the reproductive cells of an organism and can also be called sex cells. The female reproductive cells are referred to as ova, while the male reproductive cells are called sperms.
Menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle refers to the changes in the ovaries and the lining of the endometrium, starting with the fertilization of an egg. The menstrual cycle occurs when the egg breaks, and ovulation occurs after it is released for fertilization (Sifakis et al., 2017).
Regulation refers to the process that modulates the extent and the rate of any biological process within an organism (Sifakis et al., 2017).
Infertility refers to a disease that affects the reproductive system and is defined by the failure to get pregnant after more than 12 months of having unprotected sex (Sifakis et al., 2017).
Fertility refers to the capacity to induce pregnancy and therefore generate offspring.
Physiological change
Physiological changes refer to the changes in all organ systems characterized by aging. The blood pressure decrease, the lungs may indicate impaired function, and the cardiac output may decrease.
Morphological change
Morphological changes refer to the changes in the size, shape, and structure of an organism.
A zygote refers to a fertilized egg that results from a combination of the female and the male gametes during the process of fertilization (Hisanaga et al., 2019).
Dysfunction within the body refers to the impairment of the functioning of a specific organ within an organism (Hisanaga et al., 2019).
Conception refers to the onset of pregnancy and is marked by implantation of the zygote on the uterine wall. Conception begins after the union of the male and female reproductive gametes (Hisanaga et al., 2019).
Implantation in embryology refers to the attachment of the fertilized egg to the uterine wall. This occurs approximately a week after conception (Hisanaga et al., 2019).
Ovulation is a part of the menstrual cycle and occurs when a ripe egg is released from the ovary. Ovulation happens within the 14th day of a 28-day menstrual cycle (Hisanaga et al., 2019).
Antisperm antibodies
Antisperm antibody is a particular test that looks for antibodies that fight against the man's sperm in the blood and the vaginal fluids. The test uses a sample of the sperm and binds only to the sperm that is affected (Hisanaga et al., 2019).
The endometrium refers to the lining of the uterus, which comes off during the menstrual cycle but grows back thicker until the next period. The endometrium is also the site where the implantation of the zygote takes place (Hisanaga et al., 2019).
2. Draw a diagram of the male and female reproductive systems and label the structures and the functions of each part.
Male reproductive system
The male reproductive system is mainly located inside and outside of the body and is responsible for sexual function and urination. The system refers to the group of organs that make up the reproductive and urinary systems. 2021. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 May 2021].
External male reproductive systems.
The penis is a sex organ that grows to its fullest size during puberty. Apart from its sexual function, it acts as a passage of urine outside of the body. It consists of three main parts:
The root; is the part that attaches the penis to the abdominal wall.
The shaft; the shaft is shaped like a cylinder and consists of three main chambers. The chambers consist of erectile tissue that fills up with blood when an individual is sexually aroused. The penis becomes erect and rigid after it fills up with blood and allows for sexual penetration (Nagamatsu &Hayashi, 2017).
The glans; The glans refer to the cone-shaped end of the penis that is covered by loose skin referred to as the foreskin. The glan is in most cases removed through a process referred to as circumcision.
The scrotum refers to the bag of skin that acts to hold and protect the testes. The scrotum also acts as a climate control system since sperm development requires cooler temperatures than the body. The scrotum consists of muscles that then tighten and relax depending on the existing temperatures. These muscles contract to moves the testes close to the body for warmth and further away from the body for cooler temperatures (Nagamatsu &Hayashi, 2017).
Testicles are egg-shaped glands found inside the scrotum and produce sperms. The spermatic cord secures the testes on both ends. The testes also produce the male sex hormone, testosterone. The testes also consist of seminiferous tubules responsible for the production of sperm cells through a process referred to as spermatogenesis (Nagamatsu &Hayashi, 2017).
An epididymis refers to a long coiled tube the rests on each of the testes. It functions to carry and store sperms. It also serves to enhance the maturity of the sperm since the sperms that emerge from the testes are immature.
Internal male reproductive organs
Vas deferens
The vas deferens is a long tube that connects the epididymis and the pelvic cavity. It acts to transport mature sperms into the urethra for ejaculation.
Ejaculatory ducts
The ejaculatory ducts are formed from the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. These ducts empty their contents into the urethra.
It acts to carry urine to the outside of the body. The brain signals the tightening of the bladder; hence urine is squeezed out of the body. In males, the urethra is used for ejaculation during sex.
Seminal vesicles
The seminal vesicles make sugar-rich fluids that provide the sperms with energy and increase their motility.
Prostate gland
It is a structure that is located below the urinary bladder and contributes to the extra fluid needed for ejaculation. These fluids also function to nourish the sperm.
Bulbourethral glands
These glands are pea sized and are located on the sides of the prostate gland. The glands produce a clear fluid that lubricate the urethra and neutralize the acidity of urine remnants within the urethra (Nagamatsu &Hayashi, 2017).
The female reproductive system 2021. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 May 2021].
External organs of the female reproductive system
Labia majora
The labia majora enclose other external reproductive organs. The hair grow on the labia majora during puberty and contains oil secreting glands.
Labia minora
The labia minora lies on the inside of the labia majora and surround vaginal openings. The labia minora skin is very delicate and is easily irritated (Nagamatsu &Hayashi, 2017).
Bartholin's glands
They are located close to the vaginal and are responsible for the secretion of vaginal fluids.
The two labia minora join at the clitoris and small sensitive sex organ. The clitoris is sensitive to stimulation, just like the penis.
Internal organs of the female reproductive system.
The vagina refers to the canal that creates a connection between the cervix and the outside of the body.
It is a pear-shaped muscular organ that functions to nourish the fertilized egg into a fetus for nine months. It is divided into the cervix and the corpus. The cervix opens into the vagina while the corpus expands to hold the developing fetus (Lotti et al., 2018)
The ovaries are oval-shaped glands located on both sides of the uterus and produce eggs and hormones.
Fallopian tubes.
Fallopian tubes serve as the pathways for the eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. The fallopian tube is also a site for fertilization of the egg and the sperm(Lotti et al., 2018).
3. Describe the role of hormones in the following processes (name the hormones involved and describe all their functions).
Gamete production
Gamete production in males
In males, the follicle-stimulating hormones (FSH) causes the maturation of the se...

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