The status of Doping Knowledge in Malaysia: Malaysian Elite Athletes on the Level of Knowledge, Attitude towards Doping (Thesis Proposal Sample)
the task was to evaluate the usage of performance-enhancing drugs among Malaysian athletes and particularly focusing on Malaysian elite athletes on the level of knowledge, attitude towards doping. this paper is a proposal covering the background information on the given topic and offering a comprehensive literature review. the methods to be used in the main project have been discussed in this paper.source..
The status of Doping Knowledge in Malaysia: Malaysian Elite Athletes on the Level of Knowledge, Attitude towards Doping
Table of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u 1.0 Introduction and scope of the study PAGEREF _Toc500324533 \h 31.1 Background of the study PAGEREF _Toc500324534 \h 31.2 Scope of the research PAGEREF _Toc500324535 \h 42. Objectives of the study PAGEREF _Toc500324536 \h 73.0 Literature PAGEREF _Toc500324537 \h 83.1 Stimulants in doping PAGEREF _Toc500324538 \h 83.2 Nutritional supplements PAGEREF _Toc500324539 \h 83.3 Anabolic androgenic steroids PAGEREF _Toc500324540 \h 93.4 Doping between male and female athletes PAGEREF _Toc500324541 \h 103.5 Awareness and Prevention PAGEREF _Toc500324542 \h 113.6 Existing sports model towards elite athletes PAGEREF _Toc500324543 \h 123.7 Literature Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc500324544 \h 124.0 Methodology PAGEREF _Toc500324545 \h 154.3 Conceptual framework PAGEREF _Toc500324546 \h 164.2 Research ethics PAGEREF _Toc500324547 \h 175.0 The importance and relevance of the study PAGEREF _Toc500324548 \h 186.0 Proposed work schedule PAGEREF _Toc500324549 \h 18References PAGEREF _Toc500324550 \h 19
1.0 Introduction and scope of the study
1.1 Background of the study
As a physical activity, sporting events are done based on competition, mind and body developments, brilliance, and intelligence, among others. Pleasure should define sporting activities, yet some athletes have been banned from athletics as a result of using performance-enhancing drugs in pursuit of excellence performances in their competitions and trainings. Such athletes have opted to settle on the use of narcotics (doping) as a method of prioritizing their victories. This has led to several depression cases among athletes globally (Donovan eta l., 2014).
It is evident that while several measures have been put in place to prohibit doping among athletes, the real situation is worsening and athletes have been associated with the use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) compared to non-athletes (Donovan eta l., 2014). This situation of excessive use of PEDs has been associated with the swift extension of the athletics industry globally, as well as the tough competition facing such athletes. Barkoukis et al. (2014) describe 6 motivations compelling athletes to consider doping: barriers in attaining victory, to express solidarity or allegiance with the association concerned, uniqueness as a perfect athlete, the capacity to performing anything to win, and against people or parties in authority as an attempt to adjust the high-level phase of fear and anxiety. The desire to win and minimize fatigue has been considered the key reasons compelling athletes to embrace doping (Barkoukis et al., 2014). High expectations and achievements from friends, family and the state at large; fear of specific rivals or competitors and scruples of being perceived as a failure have equally surfaced as key reasons compelling athletes to embrace doping.
Various studies have been carried out to compare the use of PEDs based on gender. A significant number of these studies have found use of these drugs among women to be very high compared to male athletes (Barkoukis et al., 2014). This is so since because use of PEDs among female athletes is controlled by men (Barkoukis et al., 2014). The proposed study seeks to evaluate the usage of performance-enhancing drugs among Malaysian athletes and particularly focusing on Malaysian elite athletes on the level of knowledge, attitude towards doping. This will also focus on gender among diverse categories of athletes. The study will also assess the degree of awareness, attitude towards, likely existence and utilization of PEDs among Malaysian athletes. Besides that, the study will examine the reasons associated with the users’ inclination to use PEDs as well as the regular sources of doping awareness in Malaysia. The prevailing goal of the proposed study is to provide awareness in this sector that can be considered the basis of developing doping learning programs in an attempt to alleviate and probably get rid of doping issues in Malaysia.
1.2 Scope of the research
To ensure a successful accomplishment of the study, various studies examining the lifestyle and diet, historical background of the athletes, and athletics motivation factors among Malaysian athletes will be reviewed on their impact on doping. Such factors include Knowledge and Attitudes toward Doping in Athletics, physiological and historical justifications, environmental impacts and motivation of the athletes.
Knowledge and Attitudes toward Doping in Athletics
Based on the existing literature, social influence, control beliefs and individual attitudes are integral to plans and behaviors linked with doping (Chan et al., 2014). The above research examined the attitudes of athletes concerning doping and the results indicted how athletes held both negative (such as morality, risks, side effects or penalties of getting caught) and positive (escalated chances of victory, increased physical performance and capacity to handle high demand or acute pressure towards performance) beliefs concerning the aftermath of using prohibited PEDs (Chan et al., 2014). Research has also established an effect of social factors on the decisions of athletes to use PEDs. Additional studies have determined several cases of illegal use of PEDs among peers, teammates as well as elite athletes during sporting activities with the aim of high performance (Hoff, 2012). Other studies founded on the planned behavior theory (Chan et al., 2014; Jalilian, & Shaghaghi, 2012) have shown how alleged social aptness in doping within the sporting setting is highly correlated with the behavioral intention. The above results have revealed reliability with those found by Waddington and Møller (2014) while examining some elite athletes whereby the results also indicated the potential of social suitability in influencing the motivation and intentions of elite athletes to use banned PEDs.
While the existing studies on the attitudes and beliefs of athletes towards doping have highly embraced quantitative nature of assessment, it is imperative that future researchers embark on examining this topic qualitatively. This could be significant in escalating the fullness of the conceptualization and implementation of psychological aspects. The proposed study will therefore examine the status of the relevant beliefs of Malaysian elite athletes concerning the use of the prohibited PEDs by engaging a qualitative approach by using a survey and cross-sectional descriptive research design.
Physiological and Historical justification towards doping
Various studies have sought to examine and offer clarification on the performance and doping awareness among the Malaysian athletes. For instance, Ntoumanis et al. (2014) described the integration of the Western types of sport as an outline of social control in colonial settings, and indicate how such sports remain key source of national distinctiveness and reputation. The researchers examined the genetic and racial heritage in line with the performance of both Malaysian and Kenyan athletes and realized that those from Malaysia could not be considered emanating from a specific region as it is the case for Kenyan athletes. The proposed study will thereby establish whether the Malaysian athletes differ in the distribution of their haplogroup compared with the Malaysian population.
Environmental influences towards doping
In their study, Jalleh et al. (2014) examined some Kenyan elite athletes and determined their geographical location and realized majority of them came from the Rift valley, with Kalenjin being the major ethnic group, the key sub-tribe being Nandi and Nilotic dialect being the main language. Presently, there exists literature gap on the impact of environmental factors on the performance of Malaysian athletics. The proposed study will also examine the main geographical region producing most of the Malaysian elite athletes, besides determining the potential impact of environmental factors on such athletes since their childhood.
Athlete Motivation and doping
Besides examining the explanatory factors affecting the performance of Malaysian athletes, their inclination to doping activities and their overall success, the proposed study will engage a cross-cultural evaluation of motivational aspects in Malaysian short- and long-distance runners. For instance, Donovan et al. (2014) examined how motivation among Southern Asia athletes affected by overall performances and the results indicated how the sampled participants indicated increased anticipation for success than failure when motivated by the relevant authorities, friends, family and general population.
2. Objectives of the study
The target population is the elite Malaysian athletes in the long, middle and short distance events. The research data will be collected from the aforementioned categories. The study’s primary objectives include:
1 To examine the doping awareness of Malaysian athletes
2 To evaluate the doping attitudes among Malaysian athletes
3 To establish the probable doping practice amongst Malaysian athletes
4 To establish the factors affecting doping amongst Malaysian athletes
5 To identify the general sources of anti-doping culture among Malaysian athletes
3.1 Stimulants in doping
Some of the well-known stimulants consist of cocaine, pemoline, dimethylamylamine, amphetamine, fenfluramine, D-methamphetamine, pemoline, methylphenidate, selegiline, sibutramine, and strychnine. Literature in this field has indicated how stimulants enhance endurance, improve anaerobic performance, minimize fatigue issues, enhance reaction time, escalate alertness, and result in weight loss. Notable, while the Malaysian anti-doping age...