1 page/≈275 words
Effects Of Global Rise Of Terrorism On American Security Management (Thesis Proposal Sample)
EFFECTS OF GLOBAL RISE OF TERRORISM ON AMERICAN SECURITY MANAGEMENT
The literature review section will be divided into two parts. The first one will be the introductory section which will focus on the overview of US government spending over the years, and the second one will be an empirical review of past studies conducted in this area.
2.1 Overview on US Spending On Terrorism
Terrorism has become the global concern which has virtually affected every country. Due to increase in terror activities, many counter-terror programs have gradually been developed. They are mainly the financial plans, which many nations have opted for in their fight against terrorism. One of the countries which are actively involved in the issue is the United States of America (Abadie and Gardeazabel 2008, p. 12).
The annual allocation to the fight terrorism increases progressively from one financial year to another thus evidently showing that the country uses more funds in fighting terrorism (Winfree, 2017). The US spending can categorically be classified into three distinctive parts. The first one involved expenditure on domestic security that is budgeted for under the Department of Security. The second type of spending includes international contingent programs whose budget must be approved by the Congress before being implemented. This budget has no limits as it is based on the unforeseen future global terrorist activities. The third category is expenditure on supportive departments which include Homeland Security Department (Winfree, 2017).
Spending heavily on terrorism has got two main benefits: first, it helps to secure a country's citizens as well as supporting international efforts in fighting terrorist groups, and secondly, it aids the country in being up to date with the current technology in handling terrorist activities which keep on mutating. A good example is the development of F-35 jets and drones used in fighting terror groups (Blomberg, et al 2004, p.1019).
The history on war expenditure in the US was imitated by President George Bush who dabbed it as War on Terror. To starts off, in 2001, the Congress approved a budget worth $30 billion to help in tackling terrorist war in Afghanistan and search of the Taliban leader, Osama bin Laden, who escaped to neighboring Pakistan (Bader and Berg 2013, p.170). Within the equal years, approximately $22.9billion of the overall budget turned into set apart for emergency functions (Walker, 2017).
In 2002, a total of $59.2 billion was approved by the Congress to be used to enhance President Bush plans in organizing and facilitating Iraq was since he had gotten the wind that Saddam Hussein had embarked on building destructive weapons for mass destruction (Subhayu, Sander and Younes 2013, p.43). In 2003, the Congress approved $111.8 billion for use in battle both domestically and across the world (Kitua, 2015). In short, the trend in US spending on war has incremental aspects as the figure increases from years to years. Summary of the US government expenditure on global terrorism is tabulated below
Table1.US Expenditure on Terrorist Fighting (Billions)
War on terror
Director of defense budget increase($)
Veterans Affair budget Increase ($)
Total expenditure on terror
Source: National Defense Budget Estimates for FY (2017)
2.2 Empirical Literature Review
The increased global terrorism and other humanitarian crimes have caused the consolidation of the Congressional budget in the US over the years (Chalk, 2008). Abadie and Gardeazabel (2008, 16) indicated that by 2001 the United States of America had borrowed $2 trillion to finance terrorism war in Afghanistan. As of 2013, the debt had accrued a servicing cost of $9 trillion which had deleterious results on the economy as the kingdom price range became profoundly laid low with the borrowing (Bilmes, 2013). A substantial a part of this amount become borrowed from outside debtors who put more stress at the economy and negatively affecting the USA.’s budget. Studies indicated that increased financing of the terrorism warfare had put greater strain on Congress to boom the amount of cash allocated to fight terrorism globally (Hess, 2014).
As an example, $81 billion has been spent at the conflict in Afghanistan and $61 billion spent in Iraq (Gregory, 2015). The money has been mostly borrowed from external parties as Congress was under pressure to stretch the budget to counter the increase in global humanitarian crime against humanity (Napoleoni, 2003). The study concluded that borrowing had negatively impacted the economic system as it results in habitual increases of cash allotted to fight against the malicious groups across the country (Russel and Harvey, 2012). In all instances, the Congress has been compelled to source more money to finance these activities, and the compounding results are the increase in the protection finances allocation by way of the Congress (Nanto, 2014).As supported through the figure below, more than 70% of the Congress budget goes to defense sector.
Figure1. US Defense Spending
Source: National Defense Budget Estimates for FY (2017)
Moreover, the 11thof September assault inside the US precipitated server harm on Congress budget allocation. The Congress was forced to inject about $52.7 billion emergently sourced to battle terrorism (Stewart and Mueller 2008, 149). The figure represented the biggest amount of cash spent on defense security budget (Frey 2007, 19). It became 83% of the amount of cash that Congress had allocated for defense in 2003. In these 12 months, an additional of $28.8 billion turned into also sourced to finance the struggle in opposition to massive terrorism, which turned into focused on Americans nationals globally. It is far accordingly vital to notice that the assault brought on the rise in expenditure on protection (Fraser, 2012).
The effects of this move have severely impacted the US economy as it led to overstretching of the defense budget. The amount that was set aside to fight the war in the US could have been issued to save the country during the 2007-2009 financial crisis or credit crunch which caused the country to record the lowest GDP growth in her history(Czinkota and Steen 2010,p.840). The country continued to extend more than $16.39 trillion on defense (Dagget, 2007). The figure below represents the summary of the research findings regarding the historical effects of the US expenditure on the war from 1940-2012 and how it has continued to cause budget deficit on the US defense budget.
Figure 2. Summary of US Debt Increment over Years Due To Counterterrorism Activities
Source :( Pindyck and Wang 2013, p.309)
According to a report published in 2012 by the Congress, increased expenditure on global war by the United States was resulting in a massive crowding out effects on the state's budget (Pindyckand Wang 2013, p.339). The involvement of US in the war in countries like Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Nigeria and many other nations led to over straining of the budget. The study predicts that continual involvement in external war and domestic defense security is likely to cause the country to experience the worse ever budgetary consequences as the private sector will be over pressed by the government borrowing to spend on the mutating global terrorism (Chalk, 2008). The publication summarizes its propositions in as shown in the figure below.
Figure 3: Congress expenditure on war
Moreover, the 2012 report by the Congress has shown that the Congress is struggling with financing the defense budget owing to increased threats from terrorist groups. The report indicated that the since the 9/11 attack, US has spent approximately $1 trillion on managing the defense (Bilmes and Stigletz, 2017). The primary source of the funds used has been mostly obtained from borrowing from private and external parties. This is a clear indication that the expenditure on war by the US is causing budget constraints (Wernick and Von Clinon 2012, p.732).
A research published in 2016 shows that the real expenditure on country wide security by means of America government had reached $3.4 trillion because of 9-11 terror assault (Pindyck 2013, p. 330). Consequently, it is approximated by 2053; the servicing cost of this debt or its interest will have reached $7.5 trillion (Endlers, 2015, p.52). As a result, this increase in terror expenditure implicated a $300 billion budget constraints compared to the previous year. The main concern in such a massive increase in expenditure on terrorism by the US government is that huge chunk of these monies in borrowed money, implying the direct constraints that the Congress experience in the ever increasing defense security requirements which adversely imp...
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- Effects Of Global Rise Of Terrorism On American Security ManagementDescription: One of the countries which are actively involved in the issue is the United States of America (Abadie and Gardeazabel 2008, p. 12)....1 page/≈275 words| 34 Sources | Harvard | History | Thesis Proposal |