CIVIL ENGINEERING THESIS
Table of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc521880687 \h 2Existing knowledge of congestion PAGEREF _Toc521880688 \h 5Research, Aims, and Objectives PAGEREF _Toc521880689 \h 6Project Scope PAGEREF _Toc521880690 \h 6Structure of Thesis PAGEREF _Toc521880691 \h 7LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc521880692 \h 8Impact of Traffic Congestion – (Economy and accidents) PAGEREF _Toc521880693 \h 8Financial Implications PAGEREF _Toc521880694 \h 9Environmental Implications PAGEREF _Toc521880695 \h 10Strategies to Solve Congestion PAGEREF _Toc521880696 \h 10How SIDRA can help Congestion PAGEREF _Toc521880697 \h 12Computer Simulation as an Analytical Tool PAGEREF _Toc521880698 \h 13SIDRA Intersection Modelling PAGEREF _Toc521880699 \h 14Microsimulation related studies PAGEREF _Toc521880700 \h 15Traffic Modelling and Microsimulation PAGEREF _Toc521880701 \h 16References PAGEREF _Toc521880702 \h 17
Traffic Impact Analysis (TIA) is a vital part in transportation to understand the information to determine and judge the movement for upcoming road development (Wagner, 2010). One of the major problems on the roads is traffic congestion. Traffic congestion can result in many hazards and problems, these including delayed travel time which leads to economic costs, air pollutions due to the vehicle are stopping and going, and this can also lead to accidents (Bhatta, 2010). If major traffic congestion is found, drivers will intend to look for alternative routes to reach their destination; this could lead to congestion on side roads, one lane closure and slip lane queues extending to the main road. This is resulting in a delay of movement of goods and services come to the market. It can also affect the fuel consumption budget of the motoristsCITATION Nat14 \p 654 \l 1033 (Australia, 2014, p. 654). For when the vehicle in the traffic jam, the engine consumes fuel, and that is a wastage of fuel for it was not intended for that purpose.
In case a road is broad in on end while there is the narrow end, it can result in slow movement of automobiles when they reach the area. It can happen another the road is closed one lane for utility works, thus creating traffic congestion. The complete closure of one road makes the nearby road to be used alternatively by motorists that leads to traffic congestion on that road. It may inconvenience the motorists and the pedestrians using the same roadway (Rao, 2012).
The Traffic Impact Analysis is (TIA) is the tool that utilized to ensure development effects are properly mitigated Tonsley Precinct grows in quite manageable and sustainable way. Tonsley Precinct Impact Analysis will be used to make knowledgeable decisions concerning preliminary plat, rezoning, site plan, and for particular important applications (Glasson and Therivel, 2013). The Traffic Impact Analysis will safeguard Tonsley is capable of: Identifying in advance whichever potential contrary effects to the current transportation network; guarantee adequate measures are provided for the intended development. Assisting in private and public sector entities in the timely identification of traffic operations related issues, including but not restricted to traffic signals, access locations, and extra factors facilitating transportation. Supporting long-term design solutions which foster in control advance of transportation set-up stable with the Comprehensive Plan of the local government and community visionCITATION Col15 \p 82 \l 1033 (Buchanan, 2015, p. 82).
Traffic impact analyses are becoming more popular to pre-develop current and future scenarios for the transportation network, this helps improve the flow and infrastructure. A new pre-developed structure such as commercial, institution, shopping centres and any new usage of land need TIA to predict what the traffic flow would be. Typically, in realistic environment traffic flow vary by the time within the day, using the surrounding areas traffic volume TIA can be used to predict future impact analysis for the development area.
Flinders University has invested in the Tonsley Innovation District which aims to operate a learning environment, commercial buildings, and a residential property development. The residential development is called the Tonsley Precinct it is located 11.8 km from Adelaide CBD and 6 minutes' drive from Marion shopping centre. It is the main attraction in the Tonsley innovation district, and this village offers a 21st century modern way of living. The land size is approximately 11 hectares, and it is projected to accommodate around 850 homes and 1,200 residents. Tonsley innovation also has a high commercial and educational useCITATION Alb15 \p 873 \l 1033 (Bull, 2015, p. 873).
The research method was profound by the literature review and the guidance of this thesis supervisor. The aims will be presented and addressed throughout this thesis. The research procedure includes getting the SCAT details for each of the corresponding intersections, second to use SIDRA intersection to construct a model for all corresponding intersections and run SIDRA to find the worst scenarios and traffic management to suit the best design and to develop a model on the software Infra Works.
Fig 1: Tonsley innovation area
Figure 1 shows the Tonsley innovation area and the square that is shown is where the Tonsley Precinct will take place. This report objective is to traffic analyse and manage the roads that will be contained within the precinct and the connection to major outer roads.
The proper understanding of this development needs to be acknowledged, if the purpose of this development isn't considered, then the resolution of producing an economical, environmental friendly design would not be satisfied. It is a fact when a new development is underway there would be new traffic generated which will cause a volume increase to the surrounding routes and new routesCITATION Ant13 \p 71 \l 1033 (Downs, 2013, p. 71).
Existing knowledge of congestion
The traffic congestion at Tonsley has been a big problem for commuters. It is frustrating for a commuter to spend unexpected more time on the road which can lead to time lose. Road network and public transport have failed to keep pace with the progressing growth in the economy in this vicinity. Using motor vehicles has caused many passengers to spend more time in the traffic jam because it slows the efficient movement of vehiclesCITATION Ste11 \p 782 \l 1033 (Ison, 2011, p. 782). These are the causes of traffic congestion in Tonsley precinct:
A great number of cars on the roadways resulting in insufficient mass movement possibilities or other motives. Blockage and merger caused by the obstacles on the roads which can result from any of the following: Works on the road, an accident, narrowing down of the road, closure of the lane because of utility works or double parking.
Other causes of traffic congestion in Tonsley precinct include occasional malfunctioning of the traffic lights. Lack of sufficient green time. Too many pedestrians are crossing not allowing cars to move or turn. Many trucks on the road resulting to insufficient rail freight prospects. Overdevelopment in this region with an already overcrowded transit system and insufficient road system. Unreliable travel time. Too many traffic checks on the roads.
The blame of traffic congestion is laid on the drivers, traffic official, the ministry of transport and pedestrians. Sometimes the drivers continue using private cars even when the public transport is the right choice. The reason being people tend to what is sensible for them. Not only that but also aggressive drivers who want to overtake or overlap. Furthermore, the department of traffic is blamed for intentionally making Traffic lights without considering enough time for either green or red which are automatically working. Sometimes the traffic officers may stop the motor vehicle near school zones for children to cross the road while the traffic light is green and that reduces that can lead to traffic congestion. However, the ministry of transport is blamed when it does not have long-term plans for every road. The ministry of transport is to increase road capacity as the motorists’ increase so that to avoid traffic congestions. Even some roads have been widened, but unnecessary roundabouts can lead to slow transitCITATION Eud11 \p 720 \l 1033 (Jane, 2011, p. 720).
Research, Aims, and Objectives
The main aim of this research is to investigate and analyse the impact of traffic on the Adelaide Tonsley precinct. In order to achieve the main aim of the research, various specific objectives were set to assist in the achievement of the main aim. Some of them include; Analysis of the trip generation, estimation of time per trip queue, and to analyse the traffic management.
This project is carefully crafted to cover the impact of traffic on the Adelaide Tonsley precinct. The research strictly focusses on the topic of the research such as to determine the causes of traffic congestion in Adelaide Tonsley precinct, the financial and environmental implications of traffic and what are the solutions to the traffic congestion. Various techniques will be used that relate to the study of traffic such as the use of SIDRA. With that, the research is tied to using the materials that relate directly to the topic of the research.
Structure of Thesis
This thesis contains the following chapters.
Introduction; which introduces the dissertation to the reader and it contains a summary of the entire paper. In this chapter, there are aims and objectives of the research, significance of the research, the scope of the research and the research.
Literature review; this chapter reviews the various studies that have been conducted by various scholars regarding the impact of traffic on the Adelaide Tonsley precinct are r...