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Annotated Bibliography Assignment: Democracy in Education (Annotated Bibliography Sample)


The client wanted an annotated bibliography exploring how democracy is INCORPORATED into the AMerican Education system. It also explores challenges associated with teaching of democracy.

Annotated Bibliography: Democracy in EducationNameInstructorInstitutionDate
Democracy in Education
Abdul-Sadeqaly, M. (2005).The effect of using some democratic practices on the university students' attitudes towards English language. Retrieved from
This article examines the possibility of using democratic practices in universities and their impact on students’ and instructors’ attitude towards the English language. The relationship between democratic practices and education are summarized, and a brief explanation is included of the diplomatic relationship between students and educators, resulting from the teaching and learning of the concept of democracy at the post-graduate level. This article is relevant because it explain the potential reasons for the lack of democratic practices such as authoritarian forms of learning, overwhelming gaps in the educator to student ratios, which hinder implementation of democratic practices such as “authoritarian forms of learning, the large number of the students inside each classroom, the overload the teacher suffers from, the traditional teaching techniques, and teacher preparation program at faculties of education” (Abdul-Sadeqaly, 2005, para. 6).
Adeyemi, M. B. (2016). An investigation into the status of the teaching and learning of the concept of democracy at the junior secondary school level in Botswana. Educational Studies, 28(4), 385-401. doi: 10.1080/0305569022000042408
The research article examines Botswana’s junior secondary schooling curriculum, with respect to how it embodies and affects the learning of democracy. The article takes a special interest in 72 Social studies teachers’ perception on presumed degree to which the aims of teaching democracy has been achieved, and highlights some of the challenges they face while teaching and promoting various aspects and elements of democracy, and likely solution. The author explains that major challenge facing the teaching of democracy is social studies is the defining of democracy within diverse learning environments that had students of different learning abilities. However, using the 72 social studies teachers as a study sample, “study found a moderate but positive correlation between the self-assessment of 36 purposively selected subjects from the 72 social studies teachers and the observed attributes on some traits on democracy while teaching a topic on democracy” (Adeyemi, 2016, p. 385). The article is relevant to democracy because it does not only highlight the gap between what teachers consider as practicing of democracy and what they end up doing routinely when classrooms. It also points on the implication of implementing democracy in schools.
 Bahmueller, C. F. (2000). A framework for teaching democratic citizenship: An international project. Center for Civic Education.
Retrieved from /papers/cbframe.html
The article presents a framework proposed by the Center for Civic Education to achieve “an international, cross-cultural consensus on the central meanings and character of the ideas, values, and institutions of democracy” (Bahmueller, 2000, para. 1) by designing and promoting common elements of education for democratic citizenship. This article discusses the structure and content of the framework, pointing out that since politics and governance is part of human life, there is need for liberal democracy to enable people choose their regimes from the world’s economic and socially developed countries, not just the US. This article is important in teaching the fundamental principles of democracy such as, ”respect for and protection of individual freedoms, the rule of law, the equality of citizens before the law, limited (‘constitutional’) government, an autonomous civil society, and the maintenance of the Open Society” (Bahmueller, 2000, para. 10). In addition, the article is important in teaching the philosophy of universal adult suffrage, the need for conducting free and fair regular election to establish people’s regime of choice.
Bargar, M. S. (1998). Democracy in action. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. Retrieved from
Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute developed a three-month curriculum on Democracy in Action, aimed at helping students to develop critical problem solving strategies within the political spectrum by achieving realistic values in political thought. The curriculum is designed to help students formulate potential vision of solving “political unrest, reform and change throughout diverse cultures” (Bargar, 1998, para. 3) by allowing them to think like some of the favorite political thinks and using the art of murals and marionettes to express their vision. This curriculum is relevant to democracy in education because it helps students adopt diverse political thinking and enrich students and their communities by making democratic language part of their daily living.
Boostrom, R. (2016). The peculiar status of Democracy and Education. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 48(1), 4-22. doi: 10.1080/00220272.2014.962100.
The author provides a perspective devoid in modern school practices or US-policy making because democracy and education are problematic in the current state of learning and curriculum development. The authors argues that although Dewey and of Democracy and Education have many admires, it is hard to tell if it is read because we live in an era where many are shying away from “progressive policies, and questions the necessity, benefit or practicality of public education” (Boostrom, 2016, p.75). This article is important because it critiques the, otherwise fading, influence of the book, Democracy and Education in informing current school policies and practices. The article argues that despite Dewey’s effort, there is little faith in public schooling because education has lost touch in instilling fundamental aspects of democracy.
Bright, N. H. (2012). Five habits of highly effective teachers. The Education Digest, 21-24.
The article argues that the teacher is the main variable in classroom performance because student success depends in the effectiveness of instruction delivery. The researcher claimed that although school quality depends on teacher quality, it is difficult improving the latter because veteran teachers hardly accept change, while younger instructions lack experience, and tenure protection hinders improvement. The article summarizes ways of achieving excellence by ensuring that only instructors that understand what excellence looks like are given opportunity to educate students. Therefore, school leaders should “identify, articulate, and disseminate the habits of top performing teachers” (Bright, 2012, p. 21). This article is relevant to democracy and education in that it identifies the best teaching habits that teachers could implement to influence students to practice/implement learnt aspects of democracy by making them part of their daily routines, as opposed to mindlessly teaching them facts (through instructional learning) that soon become irrelevant.
Collin, S. A. J., & Heaney, T. W. (2001). Negotiating the democratic classroom. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 91, 29-37.
The article presents an argument that it had to make explicit political dimensions in a graduate classroom because academic hierarchy and professorial authority are considered impervious to political influence in institutions of high learning. The article summarizes the relationship between democracy and education in a graduate classroom, pointing out that democracy is possible despite contradictions and hegemony experienced in such institutions. Democracy is conceived, circumscribed within regime of power hence challenging participatory practice in a graduate classroom because of fear of pushing the borders since it involves anticipating and countering resistance. This article is relevant to democracy and education because it highlights how academic hierarchy and professorial authority circumscribe democracy, resulting to obstacles luck of inclusivity. “Democracy in education can occur only within a teaching-learning environment that provides opportunities for the articulation and analysis of multiple sociocultural experiences” (Collin, 2001, p.30).
Da Cunha, M. V. (2016). We, John Dewey’s audience of today. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 48(1), 23-35,
doi: 10.1080/00220272.2014.1003604
This article criticizes John Dewey’s Democracy and Education, which according to the authors does not represent or capture modern education. The article claims that the book conveys a utopia thought designed to provoke people to act towards transforming of current reality with the hope of achieving a better future. Modern readers of Dewey have surrendered their power to act or not act because they seek to achieve his utopia. The article summarizes the change in the level of influence achieved by Democracy and Education in the current schooling practices by claiming that time keep changing and future, which was once anticipated, has presented unique problems that were unforeseen. The researcher argues that, “one needs to understand the cultural context in which Dewey elaborated his ideas, particularly his pedagogical proposals presented in Democracy and Education, as well as the effects his theses had in the world of today, a world with problems that did not exist for Dewey” (da Cunha, 2016, p. 24). The article claims that Dewey’s utopia has been replaced by dystopia, which has resulting to contradiction between school administrative progressivism and pedagogical progressivism. This article is relevant to this topic be...
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