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5 pages/≈1375 words
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Health, Medicine, Nursing
Annotated Bibliography
English (U.S.)
MS Word
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Medicine Annotated Bibliography (Annotated Bibliography Sample)


In those between the age of 18 and 25 years with acne, are oral drugs, compared to creams, more effective in reducing breakouts?


Annotated Bibliography
Institutional Affiliation
Research question: In those between the age of 18 and 25 years with acne, are oral drugs, compared to creams, more effective in reducing breakouts?
Search strategy: All the articles were sourced from the PUBMED database. To find the articles that specifically focused on the use of oral drugs and creams in the treatment of acne, I conducted two separate searches on the database. In the first search, the researcher typed and searched for articles on "oral drugs for acne treatment in those between 18 and 25 years." In the second search, I typed in the search tab "effectiveness of creams in acne treatment in those aged between 18 and 25 years." The keywords were acne treatment, oral acne drugs, acne creams and acne patients aged between 18 and 25 years,
Bhate K, Williams H. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris. British Journal of Dermatology. 2013;168(3):474-485. doi:10.1111/bjd.12149. Bhate and Williams conduct a systematic review of the cause and prevalence and causes of acne. In their study, they analyze different epidemiological studies relevant to the topic. They argue that despite acne being a universal condition among adolescents and young adults around the globe, little is known about its epidemiology. Knowledge about the condition’s epidemiology will allow for the most effective therapies for treating and preventing the condition to be identified. The researchers point out that the articles they reviewed were sourced from two databases namely Embase and Medline. They report that around 20% of young people around the globe are affected by moderate to severe acne condition and that the severity is directly related to pubertal maturity. Additionally, the study reveals that when antibiotics are utilized, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects are realized. Bhate and Williams utilized a wide range of references. Most of the references are recent, meaning that their results and findings are based on other studies conducted recently.
Decker A, Graber E. Over-the-counter Acne Treatments A Review. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012;5(5):32-40. Decker and Graber point out that despite acne being common among the adolescents, individuals of all ages may also be affected. They argue that many individuals who have acne often seek both prescribed and over the counter medication for the condition. They point out that with the high costs associated with visiting dermatologists, has forced many of those with acne to seek over-the-counter medication. As a result, the utilization acne medication directly bought from pharmacies has been on a steady increase. Decker and Graber analyze various publications to identify the efficacy of different over the counter medications including oral drugs and creams. They report that their study revealed that there is a wide range of over the counter acne drugs and that each of the types is specially designed to counter certain known pathogenic ways through which acne lesions develop. They point out that the acne drugs incorporate a wide range of formulations, with the primary aim of widening the spectrum and customer appeal. The article is well organized, with the authors utilizing headings and subheadings. Additionally, the article successfully presents an argument that is based on past studies and recent developments in the pharmaceutical industry. They conclude that more research needs to be done to find out how effective the different drugs for acne treatment are.
Ebede T, Arch E, Berson D. Hormonal Treatment of Acne in Women. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2009;2(12):16-22. This article investigates the use of hormones in treating acne among women. The title alone leads the readers to expect that the focus is on women of different ages. The article points out that acne is a condition of the pilosebaceous unit and that there are varieties of standard treatment protocols. These protocols include isotretinoin, oral and topical antimicrobials as well as topical retinoids. In their report of the study, the authors clearly outline the methodology and the rational for using the said research design. The authors argue that acne was previously miscategorized as an adolescent condition, but studies conducted over the past years have revealed that the average age of presentation for treatment is 24 years. Additionally, the article points out how gender and genetics are an important factor when it comes to the prevalence of the disorder. It is argued that the direct costs associated with the condition in the US alone are in excess of $ 1 billion per annum and that systematic antibiotics have been reported as being ineffective among most women. The article makes use of different academic sources, including journal articles and books. The arguments presented are therefore well informed.
Bagatin E, Steiner D, Florez M. Acne vulgaris: prevalence and clinical forms in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil. An Bras Dermatol. 2014;89(3):428-435. This article investigates the prevalence of acne among adolescents in Brazil. The researchers utilize a cross section study approach, involving 452 adolescents of age 10 to 17 years. The methodology and expected results are clearly outlined. Similarly, the authors organize the article under headings and subheadings, which makes it easier for the readers to identify the article's central arguments. It argues that acne is not only limited to adolescents, but also that it also affects adults. Its prevalence varies among different ethnic groups as well as countries. The authors point out that acne is among the top five reasons why young people aged between 11 to 21 years seek medical consultation. The study reports that due to the different clinical features of the disorder and different methods used to diagnose and evaluate the disorder, the prevalence among both adolescents and adults varies considerably. The language used is objective and the article is generally arranged in a logical manner.
Ozolins M, Eady E, Avery A et al. Randomized controlled multiple treatment comparisons to provide a cost-effectiveness rationale for the selection of antimicrobial therapy in acne. Health Technology Assessment. 2005;9(1). doi:10.3310/hta9010. This study sought to identify the most cost-effective antimicrobial therapy in acne treatment. The study utilized a parallel group randomized clinical trial involving 649 participants aged between 12 and 39 years old. All the participants had mild to moderate acne, manifested on their faces. The methodology is clearly outlined and readers can easily understand why the authors decided on these study designs. The outcome measures for the study were the changes that took place in the inflamed lesion count as well as moderate self-assessed improvement. Some of the regimes that the study sought to test for effectiveness include benzoyl peroxide, erythromycin, oral oxytetracycline and minocycline. The study reports that the least effective regime was minocycline while the most effective regime combined benzoyl peroxide with erythromycin. Th...
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