5 pages/≈1375 words
Articles Summary: Carlos Trevino Calderon And Ernest Zamora (Article Sample)
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Article one: Factors Affecting the Implementation of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocols for English Language Learners
Carlos Trevino Calderon and Ernest Zamora
The article examines the effect that a teacher’s attitude has on the Implementation of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protos (SIOP). In the study, the researcher observes how the teacher's attitude affect the effectiveness of the SIOP program for English learners. The research focused on underperformance by students who were learning English and has another language as their native language and the dormant means of communication. To do so, the research uses the SIOP model to establish the extent that a teacher’s attitude had on the effectiveness of the strategies as well as long-term performances that English Language Learners(ELL) acquire. Findings from this research offer insight to schools and school districts by providing useful information for use while planning on staff development, modifying curriculum and adjusting institution’s support and when developing support paradigms to ensure they are sensitive to learners needs.
Research Methodology, Methods
For the article, the researcher used students and teachers from a small school district. According to (Carlos & Ernest 2014) the school has about 29.4% student of Hispanic descent and were classified in English Language Learners(ELL). The student participants were from 5th grade, qualified as ELL and sampled from four elementary schools with their teachers. The study consisted of 222 students and 12 teachers and used nonprobability, purposive sampling.
The study focused on observing causality and meaning and hence utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods. The methodology approach used was mixed methods and it included collecting data and performing its analysis. The data was collected using a combination of classroom observation, interviews, documents, surveys and data acquired from Data management for Assessment and Curriculum (DMAC). DMAC provided solutions from software suite that the district uses for managing the curriculum and enhancing data assessment (Carlos & Ernest 2014).
Summary of Research Results
The researcher designed both quantitative and qualitative question for the research. Information collected from both approaches were analyzed to deduce whether or not there is a significant relationship existing between the academic performance of student participants in the specific groups. The first stage gave information regarding teacher’s attitude with a highlight that it is possible to influence teachers attitude as proposed by the SIOP model. The second stage analyzed assessment data to establish if there is a relationship between a positive teacher’s attitude towards the SIOP model and a higher numbers of ELL students performing well in exams. The combination of these two approaches gave insight into some reasons that affect the success of ELL program whether positively or negatively. The results from both approaches indicated that students who are instructed by teachers with positive outlooks to SIOP model recorded a slight improvement compared to students who were instructed by teachers will less positive attitude towards the program. However, (Carlos & Ernest 2014) reported that findings indicate that this factor isn’t sufficient to make statistical significance. The combining of both quantitative and qualitative data provided the study with triangulation and hence the study scores higher in credibility and validity tests.
Article two: Early Childhood Teachers Reconstruct Beliefs and Practices Through Reflexive Action
Maru Riojas-Cortez, Iliana Alani’s And Belinda Bustos Flores
The article focuses on the impact of different dynamics in teaching practices that are used in classrooms on a daily basis. The article is findings of a cohort study involving five bilingual researchers who were enrolled to practice and test their theory on teaching and learning. The cohort was working with learners in an early childhood graduate program. The teachers were conversant with reflection and continuous dialogue practicing their theory and at the same time developing the theory from field observations and advancements. In their study, these teachers were interested in articulating ongoing transformative processes that early childhood teachers go through before developing a sustainable experienced professional.
The study was carried out in a school district in south-central Texas. According to (Maru, Iliana & Belinda,2013) the institution predominantly serves a low-income Latino population and majorly relies on grants for funding. The institution’s administration had noted that most teachers in early childhood program were having difficulties providing a culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate support. Researching teachers selected five teachers enrolled in an early childhood graduate program as participants. Two of the participants were certified as early classroom teachers, and three were certified as generalist teachers, and they all had at least one-year experience in teaching kindergarten pupils. All the five teachers claimed a need to change the designated curriculum since they felt it didn’t follow the practices under which they were trained. The researchers observed a pattern of discordance between theory and practice and they noted that it would result in ethical conflicts in an attempt to harmonize beliefs and practice.
A qualitative design was used to collect both oral and written responses from participants. The participants were to fill up course assignments for the program they were recruited to by the researcher. The researcher also observed participant teachers in the classroom at the beginning and end of a study lesion. Data collected from participants assignments were compared to collected oral responses and data from observations for triangulation and ensure the validity of the data.
According to (Maru, Iliana & Belinda,2013) the findings identified four specific themes maintained by the efforts of transformation by each participant. To begin with, the research indicated the role of epistemological beliefs from which it was observed that participants at first didn’t understand how young children learn. Rather, they were driven by completing the curriculum. Also, Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)was noted to be an obstacle in learning and teaching process mainly because participants didn’t understand the meaning and approach of this factor. Significant improvement was noted among participants at the end of the program indicating they had gained skills to utilize developmentally appropriate practices. In playful practices, researchers noted misunderstood conceptions regarding the role of play as a teaching tool. Participants were noted to have gained insight on how to engage pupils in meaningful play in their classrooms. Finally, diversity integration was noted to be significant. To effectively support a child’s learning there is an absolute need to understand them within their diverse cultural framework.
The research concluded that there is a gap between theoretical approach and practice models in the field. In the research, (Maru, Iliana & Belinda,2013) established that there is need to adjust models taught to teachers to meet specific needs that they experience while working with kindergarten pupils.
Article three: Elementary preservice teachers’ experiences with responses to intervention
Amanda R. Hurlbut & Jeanne Tunks
The article analyzes the application of Response to Intervention(RTI) model. The RTI model is an intervention system used in the classroom by teachers to identify and assist students who are struggling by providing individualized care and support in academics and give them a chance to succeed in their studies. Researchers have established various studies in which they assessed the effectiveness of RTI use. In most studies, researchers sampled psychology students and specialized educators ...
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