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Carbon capture, storage and utilization in oil refineries (Article Sample)


the manuscript is a narrative review on conventional and upcoming carbon capture storage technologies in India. the focus is on carbon capture, storage, and utilization in oil refineries. the manuscript is meant to be published at Environmental Science and Pollution Research journal.


Carbon capture, storage, and utilization in oil refineries.
Carbon emissions have been increasing over the years. In India, the carbon emissions in 2018 were 123 Mt CO2, which increased to 132 Mt CO2 in 2019. The total amount of emissions resulting from oil and gas operations is presently 5200 million tonnes (Mt) (CO2-eq), accounting for 15% of the total energy sector's carbon emissions. Carbon capture storage and utilization (CCSU) is an alternate strategy for renewable energy production that can reduce CO2 emissions. This review report focuses on current carbon capture technologies used in the industries and new emerging technologies in India. Carbon capture is generally carried out by either post-combustion, pre-combustion, or oxyfuel-combustion method. The captured carbon is stored in various ways including geological storage, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, un-mineable coal bed storage, saline aquifers, deep ocean storage, enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Although there are other methods such as chemical injection and steam to derive oil from oil fields, enhanced oil recovery method is a proven technology to increase oil production and permanently store CO2. Conventional amine-based solvents such as monoethanolamine (MEA), diglycolamine (DGA), and a non-amine-based solvent such as sodium carbonates are used to adsorb the carbon dioxide. Other carbon capture methods include Solid sorbents such as polymeric materials, activated carbonaceous materials, zeolites, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), silica, alkali metal carbonates, and membrane technology. Recently, industries and research institutes are showing interest in incorporating alternate carbon capture methods that are non-toxic, non-corrosive, and sustainable such as algae technology, non-aqueous solvent technology, alternate solvents to monoethanolamine (MEA) and diglycolamine (DGA) such as sodium carbonates. Other upcoming technologies in research and development include converting captured carbon into hydrogen, formic acid, and methane. Methane can

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