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History
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English (U.S.)
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Why the Reparation of Black Americans is a Complex Issue (Article Sample)

Instructions:

I was required to read book the "Arthur, J. (2007). Race, Equality and the Burden of History. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge." and write an essay on why Reparation of Black Americans is a Complex Issue that needs a Quick Solution

source..
Content:


Why Reparation of Black Americans is a Complex Issue that needs a Quick Solution
[Name]
[Institutional Affiliation]
Introduction
While the slave trade took place many years ago, the world today is still feeling its effects, and this has been a citical issue for many people in the society, including political leaders, scholars, human rights groups, and ordinary citizens. Several scholars believe that colonialism and the slave trade are the two major contributors to Africa's underdevelopment (Oyekam, 2016, p. 42). Arthur (2007, p. 85) says that reparation looks into the harm caused to people and society. 
Why the Reparation of Black Americans is a Complex Issue
Louis and Valerie (2014, p. 700) say that modern society races are interacting more closely than in the past, and this has made issues with race common and highly intensified. The authors reveal that it is hard for the racial injustices that have been there for decades to end drastically, but rather gradually. People cannot gain respect if they keep on ridiculing and belittling themselves, and that black people are still facing all forms of discrimination, such as color discrimination and denial of the right to vote is not a sign of superiority, but an act of barbarism that needs condemnation. Oyekam (2016, p. 54) says that there are excellent reasons for black people, regardless of whether they live in the United States, the Caribbean, or Africa to demand reparations. The reparations aren't just moral but also require people across the world, including Africa, to understand they have to address their problems, whether internal or external. 
Most of the slavery took place in the southern states, and slave masters were usually Southern white men. In those states, the ballot in Southern states is protected by various tests, including literacy and property test (Louis and Valerie, 2004, p. 579&697). From another perspective, Arthur (2007, p. 210) says that reparations only mean paying an injustice with another. The author says that if the state pays the reparations, it will not only have used resources of the descendant of beneficiaries but also those of the non-beneficiaries who make up the majority of the population in each state. He also says that some people in the slave society didn't own slaves. If at all, the reparations should be made; they should not utilize federal or state resources, but those of slave trade beneficiaries, and pinpointing them is a problem.
Louis and Valerie (2014, p. 577) state that there is a lot of progress taking place as far as racial integration is concerned. Evidence is the change of attitude for the better in the Negro Ministry, and now their clergy are more welcoming. While the tens of millions of African Americans underwent severe problems, most of them persevered and have come out better morally, materially, intellectually, and religious than most Africans living in Africa. Yamamoto, Serano, and Rodrigues (2003, p. 1334-1335) say that the reparation claims by African Americans and the popularity of those claims around the world challenges the American society because the United States government is involved in many matters around the world. Many communities are attempting to solve historical wartime and colonial injustices, so the way the issue will be handled will determine the acceptability of American policies' around the world. 
Louis and Valerie (2014, p. 696) say that hushing the criticism by honest people of contrary opinion is quite dangerous. In most instances, this will force those with meaningful criticism to mute and paralyze their effort. Some of them give a speech in a passionate and non-temperamental manner to the extent of losing listeners. People should be encouraged to make earnest and honest criticism because this is the heart of democracy that stabilizes modern society. Torpey and Burkett (2010, p. 53) say that because previously, we encountered several obstacles to African American reparation progress, the best way forward would be to distinguish beneficiaries and perpetrators clearly. It has been impossible to decide reparation of an economic type because it is hard to show the particular way that the legacies of slavery and segregation have on the Negros. The has been a long time lapse since the trade was abolished that people can no longer clearly pin point exactly who is affected.
In the history of almost every society globally, during severe crises, the primary doctrine has been that having manly self-respect is more than wealth, and members of the community willingly give up that respect. If they no longer strive for it, they are unsuitable for civilizing (Louis and Valerie, 2014, p. 698). According to Massey and Denton (1993, p. 341-342),

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