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Human Brain Structure And Functions Book Report Assignment (Book Report Sample)




Introduction The brain is the most sophisticated and superb human body part. The brain provide responsiveness of self and of the immediate surroundings, processing a continuous streams of sensory information. It controls muscle activities, the secretions of the glands, breathing and the internal temperature. Every single feeling, plan, creative thought, and feeling is established by the brain. The human brain’s neurons file the memory of events in human life.
The It weighs roughly 3.3 lbs, and makes up approximately 2 % of a human being body mass 85 % of brain's weight is made up cerebrum. The brain contains nearby 86 billion of nerve cells and billions of nerve fibers; these neurons are linked by trillions of synapses.
Evolution of BRAIN THEORY
Triune Brain Theory
Dr. Paul Maclean, a prominent neuroscientist, established the well-known Triune Brain model for understanding the human brain and its evolutionary past. According to Maclean concept, three different brains materialized uninterruptedly in the progress of evolution and co-exist the human skull. These 3 portions of the brain, usually do not function individually. They have created various neuro paths through which they effect each other. This interaction of emotion and memory, action and thought is the basis of a person’s independence. The Triune Brain concept gives a better knowledge of survival instinct like fight or flight reaction and its capability to supersede a more rational neocortex.[Cory, Gerald A, and Russell Gardner. 2002. The Evolutionary Neuroethology Of Paul Maclean. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.]
Reptilian Brain
The eldest of the 3, manages the body's important functions like breathing, heart rate, body temperature and balance. The reptilian brain contains the key structures in reptile's brain: the cerebellum and the brainstem.
Limbic System/Paleo mammalian
Appeared in first mammals. It can file memories of human behaviors that created agreeable and disagreeable feelings; it is in charge of emotions in human beings. The key structures of limbic brain are the amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus. It is responsible for value judgments people make.
First presumed significance in primates and terminated in human being brain with its 2 big cerebral hemispheres which play dominant function. The hemispheres have been in charge of the improvement of human language, imagination, consciousness and abstract thought. The neocortex is stretchy and has almost immeasurable learning abilities.
Human Brain Division
The human brain is divided into three key parts depending on the embryonic development: the First one is forebrain, then midbrain and hindbrain.
The forebrain/ pros encephalon encompasses of thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebrum, and pineal gland and different other structures.
The midbrain / mesencephalon, situated near the center of the human brain between hindbrain and interbrain, contains a part of the brainstem.
The hindbrain/ rhomb encephalon encompasses of the remaining brainstem and also pons and cerebellum. Before looking at these diverse areas of the brain, first and foremost let’s describe the significant categories of cells and the tissues that’s builds them.[Marshall, Louise H, and Horace Winchell Magoun. 2010. Discoveries In The Human Brain. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press] [Cory, Gerald A, and Russell Gardner. 2002. The Evolutionary Neuroethology Of Paul Maclean. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. Marshall, Louise H, and Horace Winchell Magoun. 2010. Discoveries In The Human Brain. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press]
Brain cells can be categorized into two groups: neurons and the neuroglia.
Neurons/ nerve cells, these cells carry out communication and the processing in the brain. The sensory neurons inflowing the brain from peripheral nervous structure convey information about the state of the body and its environs. Majority of the neurons are interneurons, which conveys signals to the motor neurons, which sends signals to glands and muscles.
Neuroglia / glial cells, assist brain cells; support and guard the neurons. The brain has four categories of glial cells: oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal and microglia cells.
The brain tissue has two major categories: gray matter and the white matter.
Gray matter encompasses of unmyelinated neurons, the majority of which are interneurons. The gray matter areas are the regions of nerve connections and the processing.
White matter contains myelinated neurons that link the areas of the gray matter to one another and to the remaining of the body. The Myelinated neurons convey nerve signals faster than the unmyelinated axons.
Linking the brain to spinal cord, the brainstem is the utmost inferior part of brain. Several basic survival roles of the brain are managed by the brainstem.
The brainstem consists of three parts: the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain. A net-like framework of the mixed gray and the white matter called reticular formation which is found in all 3 parts of the brainstem. The reticular formation manages muscle tone and acts as a button between awareness and sleep.
The medulla oblongata is approximately cylinder-shaped mass of the nervous tissue which links to spinal cord on the lower edge and to pons on upper border. The medulla encompasses mostly the white matter which conveys nerve signals climbing into the brain and descending into the spinal cord. Within medulla are numerous areas of gray matter which process spontaneous body functions linked to homeostasis, e.g., sneezing and coughing.
The pons region is located above medulla oblongata and below midbrain, and front of the cerebellum. Together with the cerebellum, it forms a metencephalon. The pons acts as the connection for nerve signals traveling to and from the cerebellum and transmits signals between the superior parts of the brain and the medulla and the spinal cord.
The cerebellum is a wrinkly, hemispherical area of the brain situated posterior of the brainstem and below cerebrum. The external cover of the cerebellum, called cerebellar cortex, which is composed of closely crumpled gray matter that offers the processing authority of the cerebellum.[Nadeau, Stephen E. 2004. Medical Neuroscience. Philadelphia: Saunders]
The cerebellum assisting in control motor roles like posture, balance and the coordination of sophisticated muscle actions. The cerebellum gets sensory responses from the body joints and muscles and applies this data to maintain body balance and posture. The cerebellum moreover manages timing and the finesse of sophisticated motor activities like, writing, walking, and speech.
The midbrain, or the mesencephalon, is the utmost area of the brainstem. Located between the diencephalon and pons, the mesencephalon can be segmented into 2 key parts: the tectum and cerebral peduncles.
The tectum is the posterior part of the midbrain, encompassing transmits for responses that comprise of auditory and the visual data. The pupillary reflex (fine-tuning for light concentration), accommodation reflex (concentrate on close or distant items), and the startle reflexes.
The cerebral peduncles are located in an anterior part of midbrain contain numerous nerve tracts and substantia nigra. The nerve tracts transit via the cerebral peduncles link regions of the cerebrum and the thalamus to the spinal cord and inferior parts of the brainstem. The substantia nigra is an area of dark melanin encompassing neurons that is responsible for inhibition of motion.[Marshall, Louise H, and Horace Winchell Magoun. 2010. Discoveries In The Human Brain. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press]
Upper and front of the midbrain is the interbrain, or diencephalon. The pineal glands, thalamus, and hypothalamus make up a bigger portion of the diencephalon.
The thalamus contains a pair of egg-shaped masses of gray matter lower to lateral ventricles and neighboring the third ventricle. The sensory neurons ingoing the brain from peripheral nervous structure form dispatches with neurons in the thalamus that carry on to the cerebral cortex. Here the thalamus takes a role of the switchboard machinist of the brain by channeling sensory responses to the accurate parts of the cerebral cortex.
The hypothalamus is an area of the brain positioned the lower part of thalamus and superior to pituitary gland. This part acts as brain’s regulator center for hunger, blood pressure, thirst, body temperature, heart rate, and the making of hormones.
The pineal gland is a minor gland positioned posteriorly of the thalamus in a sub-part called epithalamiums. Light striking eyes retina sends indications to inhibit the task of the pineal gland. In dark places, the pineal gland secretes melatonin, which has a tranquilizing effect on brain and aids to bring sleep. This role of the pineal gland aids to clarify why darkness is tranquilizing and light tends to distract sleep. What Protect Brain from Skull
Three covers of tissue, jointly called meninges, engulf and guard the brain and spinal cord.
The dura mater makes the leathery, outmost cover of meninges. Compressed irregular linking tissue made of hard collagen fibers provides the dura mater its strength. It also creates a pocket about the spinal cord and brain to hold cerebrospinal fluid and foil mechanical harm to the spongy nervous tissue.[Nadeau, Stephen E. 2004. Medical Neuroscience. Philadelphia: Saunders]
The arachnoid mater lines in the dura mater.It is much thinner and delicate than dura mater; it comprises of numerous thin fibers that link dura mater and the pia mater. Underneath the arachnoid mater is a part called subarachnoid space whi...
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