Problems Linked To An Unhappy Workforce And Possible Of Solutions (Book Report Sample)
the client was studying human resources and the paper tasted on academic skills, Problem-solution-evaluation for a written assignment in either report or essay format.
the work required writing of a 1500 word REPORT based on the Identification of 3 problems linked to an ‘'unhappy workforce'' . it also required an evaluation for solutions to address the identified problems and what could increase happiness within the workplace.
Table of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u 1.Introduction PAGEREF _Toc447553722 \h 32. Causes of Unhappy Workforce PAGEREF _Toc447553723 \h 32.1 Role demands PAGEREF _Toc447553724 \h 32.1.1 Role ambiguity, PAGEREF _Toc447553725 \h 42.1.2 Role conflict PAGEREF _Toc447553726 \h 42.1.3 Role overload PAGEREF _Toc447553727 \h 42.2 Relationships: PAGEREF _Toc447553728 \h 52.3 Change: PAGEREF _Toc447553729 \h 63.0 Possible Solutions PAGEREF _Toc447553730 \h 63.1 Role demands PAGEREF _Toc447553731 \h 63.1.1 Having clear expectations PAGEREF _Toc447553732 \h 63.1.2 Creation of jobs where the workforce have full autonomy and control. PAGEREF _Toc447553733 \h 73.1.3 Creation of an environment that demands fair work. PAGEREF _Toc447553734 \h 73.2 Fostering relationships. PAGEREF _Toc447553735 \h 83.3 Right Changes PAGEREF _Toc447553736 \h 84 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc447553737 \h 95 List of References PAGEREF _Toc447553738 \h 10
It is desirable for any firm to maintain a happy and well-motivated workforce. However, this is not always the case due to increasing cases of unhappy workers. According to Layard (2004), stress is the significant root cause of unhappiness and the two have been found to have a very close connection. Work-related stress, occurs when employees feel that their role demands are greater than their abilities, coping strategies or skills (Ritchie 2006). Prolonged or excessive job stress can pose a risk factor or be a hindrance in development of a health mental condition, such as depression or anxiety. Theoretical explanations concerning workplace environment can be categorized as person-environment fit theory, demand -control support model and the occupational stress framework Vandenberg, et al (2002). Drawing from these theories, this report explores 3 main causes of unhappy workforce namely, role demands, relationships and change. The possible solutions to these problems will also be considered.
2. Causes of Unhappy Workforce
2.1 Role demands
According to Bauer et al (2012), role demands form a major category among workplace stressors which contributes to unhappy workforce. Demands include factors that are intrinsic to the job for example working conditions (such as noise, lighting, temperature, or ventilation), long or working in unsociable hours, shift work, workload among others. Generally, role demands can be categorized into:
2.1.1 Role ambiguity,
Role ambiguity refers to vagueness that is attributed to the relationship between the employee and his responsibilities. Here, if a new job does not clearly outline the expectations of the workforce, then role ambiguity sets in and is related to more thoughts to leave an organization, emotional exhaustion, low performance and job attitudes that are lowered Fisher & Gittelson (1983).
2.1.2 Role conflict
It refers to when the workforce faces demands that are contradictory during work, for instance when a manager of an organization wants employees to increase the satisfaction of customers and at the same cut down costs while the employees feel that satisfaction of customers inevitably leads to increases in costs Saari and Judge (2004). Under such case, role conflict is experienced since satisfaction of one demand makes it unlikely for the other demand to be satisfied. Role conflict can also occur if employees are tasked with two roles that are different and incompatible simultaneously causing their roles to overlap Bickford (2005).
2.1.3 Role overload
It occurs when the workforce has insufficient resources and time to complete a task. It can be easily experienced in case of downsizing in an organization wherein the employees remaining are required to complete the activities that previously were being performed by the workers who were laid-off. According to Gilboa, Shirom, Fried, & Cooper (2008) role ambiguity, role overload and role conflict have all been revealed as hurting performance and lowering job attitudes which translate to an “unhappy workforce”. Excessive workloads or unrealistic deadlines can be the cause of high stress levels, with individuals working for long hours, or not taking breaks or constantly working overtime in effort to bring tasks into completion Saari and Judge (2004). According to the theory of “framework of occupational stress” which is based on similar foundations as the Person Environment fit theory, stress normally arises as a result of misfit between the environment and an individual. Secondly it outlines that subjective perceptions about work environment are primarily the determinant of strains. Work load for instance caused unhappy workers in America who were working under Frick in Andrew Carnegies steel company to go on strike in the year 1892 (Feross,2006)
Relationships with colleagues, superiors and subordinates in the workforce play another greater role in contributing to unhappy workforce. For instance, low levels of support and trust in the workforce are likely to cause an individual to be unhappy as well as harassment, conflict, and bullying which are linked to unhappiness to greater heights Blaug, Kenyon and Lekhi (2007). Instances where relationships are poorly managed without intervention for improvement of negative interactions cause similar results in the workforce. An “unhappy workforce’’ can be attributed to colleagues not interacting or relating to each other well which affect the workplace atmosphere Saari and Judge (2004). Since conflict is inevitable, poor management of disagreements or tension is key to causing “unhappy” environment. Under poorly managed relationships, individuals within a workforce may have unclear or unrealistic job expectations for each other (Layard 2004). Additionally he cites poor communication especially in case when conflict arises. There is also disintegration of teamwork and managers don’t respond to crises which slows gives poor conflict resolution processes leading to dissatisfaction.
Levels of “unhappy workforce” can be impacted via ways in which changes are introduced, communicated or managed (Ritchie 2006). If the change is badly planned or is executed unnecessary it can result in excessive pressure upon the workers. Poor management of change comes in various forms such as inadequate consultation, inconsideration of employee need and inadequate communication Layard (2006). Management of change can be poorly carried out during introduction of a new payment systems or introduction of new patterns of work that may make employees hard to cope with. An example of poor change was exemplified in America in 1885 during which the Knights of Labour made a successful strike against a Wabash Railroad of Gould who had cut down workers wages. Another strike followed in 1877 that was greater in America forming the first one to be carried out nationally due to an imposed ten percent cut in payments Feross (2006).
3.0 Possible Solutions
3.1 Role demands as a causative agent in causing unhappy workforce can be tackled through;
3.1.1 Having clear expectations
When expectations are clearly made, stress is reduced and a happy environment can thus be created as noted by Jackson & Schuler (1985) that workers whose jobs have clear descriptions experience much less stress as compared to those whose jobs are ill defined. This ensures roles and responsibilities match the actual duties of respective work.
3.1.2 Creation of jobs where the workforce have full autonomy and control.
Giving employees a sense of control and autonomy contributes to job fulfillment and satisfaction. A level of autonomy/self-direction is allowed in order to support employees in determining how to organize their work and how to tackle problems Layard (2004). An opportunity is granted for employees to give feedback in regard to their roles, such as supervision sessions, performance reviews, or team meetings. Employees are given input to decision-making concerning roles, responsibilities, policies, resourcing and procedures which contributes to a “happy workforce” (Konrad 2006). This also involves devolution of power to employees through provision of strong leadership which takes into value consideration the employee contributions and ensuring the organizational structure is clearly outlined thus contributing to a positive change in the workforce Quality leadership takes into consideration creation and implementation of effective procedures and policies while at the same time ensuring working conditions that are safe and healthy. It also makes communication of employees with employers regularly possible in order to address issues affecting both sides and the business Australian statistics (2008)
3.1.3 Creation of an environment that demands fair work.
Creation of a fair work environment releases employees of much stress leading to a “happy workforce”. Layard (2004) noted that reduction in stress demands greater security on employment and working conditions that are improved. Balancing of work demands is promoted when managers and employers ensure they set realistic expectations and goals for employees to achieve. Management of mental demands can also be done in order to give employees an opportunity of determining the order and pace of the tasks. The outcome should be regular breaks that are appropriately timed. This is also meant to provide information that is sufficient in enabling the workforce to competently perform tasks Schneider, Hanges, Smith, & Salvaggio, (2003.
3.2 Fostering relationships.
Facilitating open communication between employees and employers when problems arise will also contribute to a “happy workforce” according...
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