Global Transport and Logistics:Role and Function of Logistics (Coursework Sample)
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GS 120 – Global Transport and Logistics
GS 120 – Global Transport and Logistics
Part A- The Role and Function of Logistics
There are several main components of logistics costs. The first main component includes inventory management costs. These are the expenses incurred in holding, ordering, managing the stock levels or the inventory of a product-based business. They are therefore classified into ordering costs, stock-out costs and carrying costs. The second main component of logistics costs includes warehousing costs. These are the costs incurred in paying the rent, utilities and other expenses linked to the holding or handling of inventory which is being held a warehouse (Pajic et al, 2021). The third main component of logistics costs includes transportation costs. These are costs linked to the movement of raw materials, workers and finished products in order to make sure that customers receive the products that they need on time. The fourth component of logistics costs includes distribution costs. These are the costs of moving inventory through the various distribution channels. Thus, the producer of a product incurs these costs to enable the product to reach its end consumer. The fifth component of logistics costs is staff labor. This includes the salaries for those working in the entire logistics channel.
Part B: Value Chains
The three major stages of a value chain include the identification of the main functions and types of companies in the value chain, the analysis of structural connections, and analysis of dynamics. In the first stage, mapping out the various activities and services in the logistics is done. In the second stage, the structural elements that include vertical linkages, horizontal linkages, end-markets, supporting markets, and enabling business environment are analyzed (Copacino, 2019). In the third stage, dynamics affecting the structural changes over time are analyzed. For instance, technology, market demand and risks are analyzed. Other factors such as competition and inter-firm cooperation are also analyzed.
According to Waters (2021) there are several goals of logistics. The first goal is order fulfillment. This is achieved by ensuring that orders are in right quantity and that the right product is involved. The second goal is delivery fulfillment. This goal is met by ensuring that the product arrives at the right location in the right time. Another important goal of logistics is quality fulfillment. This goal is attained by ensuring that the order is provided intact or in good condition. Any form of damage is not allowed. Cost fulfillment is another logistics goal. It is fulfilled by making sure that the final order costs which include all costs of manufacturing and distributing the product make it affordable to the target customers.
Part A: Distribution Facilities
There are numerous types of distribution facilities. These include transfer centers and distribution centers. It is important to understand these facilities because they form a basic component of logistics. In addition to these centers, processing distribution centers and fulfillment centers may also be regarded as distribution facilities. Nonetheless, for purposes of this essay, these will not be covered. The functions of every one of them are provided in the following sections.
The first distribution facility includes transfer centers. The primary role of these centers is cross docking. In other words, these centers are used for sorting out goods and transshipping them. They basically do not function as storage areas for goods (Parfenov, Shamina, Niu & Yadykin, 2021). Once goods are received in these centers, they are immediately transferred to the next destination after sorting has been done. At these centers, shipping information is required so that it is easy to transfer these goods to where they are needed.
Another facility includes distribution centers. Their purpose is to act as storage areas where inventory is managed (Parfenov, Shamina, Niu & Yadykin, 2021). Here, goods are sorted, stored in terms of their region and later delivered to their final destinations. The work of this center is to work on the shipping, picking orders as per their content and also processing their distribution to other parts after they have been inspected and packaged.
Part B: e-Commerce
Standard retailing involves selling goods in a physical place where the buyer and the seller actually meet physically. On the other hand, e-commerce is solely the sale of products via the internet (Bhatti et al, 2020). Standard retail sales are done through stores that are located in a given geographical place while e-commerce happens in an e-commerce platform such as a website or a mobile application. Another difference is that e-commerce is more accessible in a wider geographical area due to the ubiquity of the internet while retail shops are only found within a small geographical place. It is also a fact that e-commerce is focused on a broader reach of customers while standard retail shops have a small reach and focus of customers.
An e-commerce distribution system has several unique characteristics which enables sales to be done over the internet (Moshood & Sorooshian, 2021). A good example of such a system is the one used by Amazon. First, distribution of products is done purely on electronic media. On Amazon, products are selected and put on an online cart after which the customer pays and waits for their delivery. If these products are electronic copies of things such as books or music, they can be downloaded upon payment. If they are tangible products, Amazon processes the orders and ships the products to customers. The shipping is often done by logistics companies that have been outsourced to carry out that function on behalf of Amazon.
Part C & D: Cold Chains and Green Logistics
A cold chain has three main elements. These include the cooling systems, cold storage, cold transport and cold processing and distribution. The cooling system ensures that commodities such as the perishable goods stored in it are at an appropriate temperature that would prevent them from being spoilt (Mercier, Villeneuve, Mondor & Uysal, 2017). The cold storage ensures that the goods can stay there for some time until they can be shipped to another destination. The cold transport ensured that there are conveyances available for moving the products without changing the temperature standards. The cold processing and distribution element pertains to the transformation of goods while also ensuring their sanitary standards are kept and then distributing them.
Logistics can enable sustainability in a number of ways. First, logistics can be used to ensure that there are lower carbon dioxide emissions. Thi
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