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Teenage Brain Development: What Are The Causes Of Childhood Obesity? (Coursework Sample)


The task was about answering a number of question regarding brain development in children and in teenagers.

Teenage Brain Development Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Assignment Question 1. What Are The Causes Of Childhood Obesity? Genes: More than 200 genes affect weight by influencing activity levels, food preference, body type and metabolism. Most Europian-Americans are in a high chance of having obesity and even diabetes since 16% of them inherit two copies of an alleke called FTO which are known to increase the likelihood of both obesity and diabetes. Parents: In the past few generations, parent practices have changed enhancing factors that contribute to obesity. Studies have shown that obesity is more common in infants who are not breast-fed as well as preschoolers who spend most of their time watching TV and drinking carbonated drinks. Also school-age children who are driven to school every day and those who don’t actively play outside. Policies: The other factor is embedded in social policies in that most communities and states determine what their children eat at school. Most schools have snack vending machines which create the desire and addiction of snacks for school children. Distinction Between Aptitude Tests And Achievement Tests Aptitude tests measure the ability of a child to master a particular skill. The Aptitude tests compares mental age of a particular child with his/her chronological age. Achievement tests are to test accomplishments made at a particular stage. Achievement tests compare scores to norms already established for each level. Achievement tests do not reflect age. Define Learning Disabilities These are some conditions in people that leads to difficulty in mastering a particular skill that most other people acquire easily. What Do The Terms Mainstreaming And Resource Room Mean? Mainstreaming involves placing children who have disabilities/special needs in a classroom with peers who have no disabilities. Resource room on the other hand is resource room is a remedial classroom where children with disabilities can gain help in a small group or even individually. It is basically a room designed to assist students who have specific learning problems. Discuss Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ADHD is a disorder in which a child has an uncountable urge to be active. A child with ADHD is impulsive, inattentive, and overactive and whenever the child is required to be attentive and still, they are disruptive. Boys are more affected than girls where more boys are known to have ADHD. Estimates in the United States indicate that the rates for ADHD in girls is 6% while approximately 12% of boys have the disorder. Children with ADHD present with varied symptoms, where a child might sit down to do homework and then get disrupted; the child may start asking questions unrelated to homework. The child also starts thinking about different activities such as playing, getting a drink, tapping the table, jiggling legs and going to the bathroom. In severe cases, the sequence is repeated and the child may end up not doing the homework. Therefore, in most cases, children with ADHD have academic difficulties, and they are less likely to graduate from high school and college. Over the last four decades, rates of ADHD have been increasing and in the United States the rate has increased by approximately 5%. Studies show that rates are affected by ethnicity and it is estimated that more European American children have ADHD, Question 2 Description Of Information Processing Theory This is a theory that offers an approach to how information is received, processed, stored and retrieved in the brain. It describes the sequence of events in an individual’s mind when receiving new information. Once new information enters the brain, it is analyzed and then stored, a process that is very fast and hence unnoticeable. Once the information has been received, it is broken down and stored either in the sensory register, in the working memory or in the long-term memory. Definitions sensory memory is the first component of human information processing system. After stimuli has been received, sensory memory stores it for a split of a second. Working memory is the memory in which current conscious mental activities occur. Long term memory stores information from the working memory. I9nformation can be stored for minutes, hours, days, months or years. Metacognition Change Metacognition improves with age and experience. In preschool metacognition is present but to a small extent. However, between the age of three to four years, metacognition rapidly develops and the theory of mind is formed and the child is able to relate behavior of others and forge human relations. Language Development Phonics approach to language development establish the importance of reading letters and sounds. According to phonics proponents, decoding letters and sounds is critical to reading without which a child will flounder and get frustrated and thereby fail. Therefore teaching a child to read without the basic foundation and standards of phonics renders a child helpless. Whole language approach is child-centered, and drilling a child with phonic does not help the child but rather leads to lack of motivation and reduced comprehension. This consequently leads to “fourth grade slump” (a phenomenon when 10 years old children no longer want to learn). Its therefore more beneficial to offer ac child with a choice of books and topics and encourage them to read. Question 3 Culture Of Children And Social Cognition culture of children are the things associated with children, i.e. children literature, media and artifacts. Social cognition is focused on how people perceive other, i.e how they process, store and apply information regarding others. Erickson’s Psychosocial Fourth Stage It is known as the industry verses inferiority stage. It is stage where there is tension between human productivity and incompetence. At this stage, the child becomes ready to apply himself to given skills and tasks. During this stage, a child starts to judge himself as to whether he is productive or useless. Being productive brings an intrinsic joy within the child, and thereby fosters self-control. An Example Of A Child’s Behavior During Erickson’s Fourth Stage A child at this stage is usually busy performing tasks such as collection of items like stones and seashells, categorizing them and counting them. This is the industry part of the stage and the child may feel either industrious or inferior. Kohlberg’s Stages Of Moral Development Kohlberg described three levels of moral reasoning and two stages at each level; Preconvention moral reasoning: it is a self-centered level that focuses on getting rewards and avoiding punishment. 1 Stage one of this level is oriented towards obedience and punishment. It is important to maintain n appearance of obedience while avoiding punishment. This basically means, “don’t get caught.” 2 Stage two looks out for stage one and is oriented towards instrumentalism and relativism. Everyone focuses on their own needs and the only reason as to why one should be nice o another person is for them to be nice to you too. Conventional moral reasoning is the third kevel and stages include stage three and four. It is a community centered level and social rues are applied. 3 Stage three focuses on proper behavior that pleases other people. Social approval is more important than any reward. 4 Stage four revolves around law and order. Obeying the law and being a dutiful citizen is more important than anything else. Post conventional moral reasoning is the third level and it is centered around moral principles and ideas. Includes stages five and six. 5 Stage five is about social contact, and social rules should be obeyed because they benefit everyone and everyone is in agreement to the rules. Rules are binding an if anyone does not live up to them, then the contract is no longer binding. 6 Stage six is about universal ethical principles. General universally valid principles determine right and wrong. In this stage, ethical values may contradict egocentric and social or community values. Question 4 The article “how video games can change your brain” describes the effects that video game has on the brain. Video games have been associated with increased violence, addiction an aggression. However, such characteristics can also be due to family background, gender oriented and mental problems, and doesn’t necessarily have to be caused by video games. It is clear that scientists have not been able to provide a link between video games and violence, and more studies are now focused on the benefits of playing video games. On one hand there are psychologists who believe that video games cause violence, and on the other hand there are psychologists who believe that video games are actually beneficial to human brain. According to the article, several studies have been conducted, which have provided empirical evidence that can be used to view video games in another perspective. The article also...
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