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History
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English (U.K.)
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Topic:

Middle East history (Coursework Sample)

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Middle East History course work

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MIDDLE EAST HISTORY
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Middle East history
1. The great game
Forces associated with global political and economical modernity have influenced and shaped economical, social, political and cultural life in many regions of the world. There were major powers that emerged in the last 500 years, shaping the current international states and modern economic inclination and development (Gelvin, 2011). Some of these powers include the British and Russia, who scrambled for geopolitical influences in many regions of the world. The conflict and rivalry between the Russian Empire and the British Empire to control the Central Asia resulted to The Great Game. It is usually marked with 1813 Russo-Persian Treaty, to the 1907, Anglo-Russian Convention (Gelvin, 2011). The two powers tried use geopolitical machinations to gain influence and political power in the region.
The industrial and technological revolution, coupled with limited resources was the main motivators behind the great game. The Russian and the Briton wanted to conquer regions like the Central Asia to expand on their industrial production and exploiting minerals and other resources (Gelvin, 2011). The other reasons for the great game were for military strategic plans by British, who show the expansion of the Russian Empire into Central Asia, as a threat to its occupation in the other regions of the world, like India.
Some of the success of the British includes the occupation of Kabul in 1839, taking of Chitral in 1895, taking of Hinza in 1891 and the agreement to solely control the Afghanistan foreign affairs (Gelvin, 2011). Some of the failures of Britons include expel from Kabul in 1842 and failure to stop Russia from occupying some regions of Afghan. Some of the success of the Russian includes taking of Geok Tepe in 1879 and Merv in 1884(Gelvin, 2011).Some of the Russian failure includes the failure to control Afghanistan. Current Iran had been under the occupation of Safavid dynasty, and later Qajar dynasty, which had great influence from the British (Gelvin, 2011). The major empires influenced the modern day outlook and political inclination of modern day Iran. 2. Ottoman Empire collapse in the end of the 19th and early part of the 20th Centuries
The Ottoman Empire had a great influence to the modern outlook of Asia and other parts of the world. Ottoman Empire expanded greatly to Middle East, southern Europe and North Africa. The 19th century shows Ottoman Empire losing the Serbia, Greece and Egypt (Gelvin, 2011). It was entered profligate spending and modernizations which caused the empire to become bankrupt. It was forced to seek money from every avenue it could. The Empire failed to produce enough and imposed greedy and huge taxation to farmers. It was failing to modernize the empire to a competitive level with the West in terms of military and infrastructure. This signaled disaster and its failure to the end of 10th century and in the early 20th century.
Young Turks revolution of 1908 took the Ottoman government in the hands of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) and Enver bay. Mahmet Ali was in leadership and wanted to revive the process of reforms (Gelvin, 2011). This came with a promise to have an efficient constitution, and great tolerance to minorities and Arabs. This failed to materialize due to the involvement of Ottoman to several disastrous wars, including World War one, with inevitable loss of empire territories. Ottoman Empire experienced a decline in the military ability, just before the World War One. The empire sided with the Central Powers during the World War One (Gelvin, 2011). British and allies pressed them from the south and the Armenians and Russians put more pressure on the north....
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