The court is an important institution in the formulation of policies. Specifically, in criminal justice, the Supreme Court can make decisions which affect processes, institutions and even actors in the judicial system. These ranges from the investigations by the police, corrections and finally parole. Charles Manson was a cult leader and a murderer who became famous in 1969 for Sharon Tate murders. Charles Starkweather also became popular for the deaths of eleven people. David Berkowitz who was referred to as the Son of Sam by most people used a pistol to murder 0ne man and five women. He pleaded guilty to the murders and claimed that a demon dog had given him instructions to kill. As a result, the court made a ruling to bring back capital punishment CITATION Gra \l 1033 (Grabel) which had been struck down by the US Supreme Court in Gregg’s case against Georgia. The decision was meant to prosecute Gary Gilmore who had stated that he would go back to crime if he were ever let out of prison. All the death sentences had been changed to life imprisonment, and while some states had abolished capital sentences, others held on to it.
Sixteen-year-old Terrence Graham was arrested for attempted robbery of a barbeque restaurant in Florida. He was charged like an adult for attempted robbery, battery, and assault. He pleaded guilty to his first charge, and after six months he was again arrested for home invasion and robbery. He had violated the terms of his probation, and he was got a sentence of life imprisonment without parole. The Supreme Court made a ruling in 2010 that life imprisonment of juveniles without parole violated the 8th amendment. The verdict further demanded that minors were supposed to be given opportunities to work for their release based on rehabilitation and maturity CITATION Dwy12 \l 1033 (Dwyer, 2012). The prior sentences were unconstitutional for juveniles who had not committed homicidal crimes since the cases were not very severe and the life sentences limited the offenders’ culpability.
In October 2009, Walter Fernandez and others robbed Abel Lopez and the police saw him run into an apartment where they found Roxanne but Fernandez denied them the chance to search the house. He was arrested and later Roxanne allowed them to search the house where they found ammunition, a knife and gang paraphernalia. In the case of Fernandez versus the state of California, the court had to find a solution as to whether searches without warrants when the co-tenants had consented while defendants had previously denied searches were absent. In 1974 case of the US versus Matlock, the court had ruled that the 4th amendment was not in violation when third parties who had authority consented for the police to search premises. In this case, the court ruled that reasonableness was the primary rationale of the 4th amendment CITATION Dwy14 \l 1033 (Dwyer T. P., 2014). The court further ruled that it becomes reasonable to search the house when the tenant who disputes leaves the premise. Mr. Fernandez only left the home when he was apprehended, and it was not voluntary. It was just after his arrest that the police got consent to search the house.
Before the September 11, 2001 attack, laws limited the communication between law enforcement agencies and the intelligence investigators. A barrier or wall, therefore, existed between these groups, and it inhibited the sharing of vital information CITATION Cre17 \l 1033 (Crenshaw & LaFree, 2017). In 2002, the Office of Law Enforcement Coordination (OLEC) was established by the inspector general to improve the relationship among the FBI, local and state law enforcement agencies. The main mission of the intergovernmental relationship among law enforcement agencies is to establish, then maintain a partnership between them.
The positive relationship at work and excellent communication between different law enforcement agencies are vital for efficient and effective enforcement of the law. For example, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has a significant lev...