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The Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: An Immune Cell Cancer In The Body (Coursework Sample)


The task was to write a three full-page paper on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. The sample was about an immune cell cancer that affects the white blood cells in the body. The research displayed that the disease is a chronic leukemia cancer disease since it is associated with more mature cells.

Name Institution Date Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Chronic Myeloid leukemia is an immune cell cancer also known as the Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia. It is cancer that affects the white the white blood cells facilitating mass production of these white blood cells in the blood at large. It is in the bone marrow where myeloid stems cells accumulate thus a predominant growth occurs regarding the cells more mature. The displayed notion shows that the disease is a chronic leukemia cancer disease since it is associated with of more mature cells, unlike leukemia whereby it is the immature cells that are produced in the blood cells. Additionally, it is cancer because it involves mutations in the human body concerning the BCR gene that suppresses chromosome 22 and later on reshuffles and sits on chromosome nine known as the ABL gene. Categorically, the ABL and the BCR gene attaches whereby the latter sits on the gene causing the whole translocation process in this context (Jabbour et al 2006). In the contemporary world today, most people who have Chronic Myeloid Leukemia disease always have the Philadelphia chromosomes and the ABL-BCR chromosomes at large. Philadelphia chromosome also initiates the above genes through a protein receptor that facilitates cells division thus making more cells in the bone marrow. The whole perception in the above analogy is the fact that it shows the essence of cancer disease through the division of these cells that are more mature causing the disease in this context. Therefore, as depicted earlier, the focus about the cancer is in the bone marrow where the defect on myeloid stem cells occurs. It is here where a lot of activities take place including mutation, the irregular release of red blood cells or platelets, and mass production of white blood cells which causes Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia at large (Jabbour et al 2006).   Chronic Myeloid Leukemia disease has three phases that are distinct with each sign and symptoms. The stages include the chronic phase, accelerated phase, and the blast phase. The first phase is the chronic phase which has close to eighty-five percent, asymptomatic patients. The above narrative means that they are patients without symptoms but later on when they are diagnosed, some signs and symptoms emerge. Slight symptoms such as joint pains, left side pain, abdominal fullness, and fatigue are in this phase. Abdominal fullness occurs when the spleen gets bigger since the excessive release of white blood cells, or the platelets are subjected to the spleen to be destroyed or processed. A lot of defection takes place in this part of the body causing the spleen to enlarge thus having splenomegaly. Moreover, another symptom experienced in this phase is fever caused by increase basal metabolism due to increase in the number of white blood cells in the body system (Hochhaus et al 2008). The second phase is the accelerated phase which is facilitated by the absence of treatment in the previous step. During this phase, there is a rapid making of defected cells in the body system thus the name accelerated since most cells accelerate in large numbers. These cells are not active especially platelets cells. For example, when the patient cuts himself or herself, and the bleeding cannot stop since the platelet cells do not work concerning the clotting processes in the human body, then the patient is in the accelerated phase of the Chronic Myeloid Leukemia disease. The above narrative is a symptom that should be under consideration at large. On the other hand, another sign experienced is ecchymoses which are the slight accumulation of blood upon an injury under the skin. Consequently, in this phase, one can also have a fever caused by other infections like bacteria, viruses, or even fungi that affect the human host. These infections in the body affect the host since the white blood cells cannot function properly causing the fever in the accelerated phase at large. The third phase of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia is the blast phase. In this regard, it is the blast crisis at large. During this phase, production of immature cells plays a significant role in initiating the disease in this context. In most cases, the cancer disease relates to acute leukemia with increased output in myeloblasts in the bone marrow. In this regard, bone pain is significant to the patients since excessive blood cells affect the bone marrow at large. Besides, as mentioned above, fever is guaranteed in the phase of the previous stage. The illness also comes from infections as described above in accelerated phase. Another cause of fever is also having a lot of defected cell in one’s bloodstream at large. Considering all the above steps and the perception about Chronic Myeloid Leukemia disease in this context depicts a cancerous type of infection at large that needs a diagnosis in a stipulated period (Hochhaus et al 2009). A diagnosis of an individual is paramount that one can hav...
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