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Diabetes, Glucose, and Insulin Complications (Coursework Sample)


Please provide sufficient responses for each of the following:
1. Briefly explain the mechanisms underlying the following diabetic complications. In addition to saying which tissues/cells are involved in each complication, please briefly describe how diabetes leads to dysfunctions in the susceptible tissues/cells (the mechanism). The shared mechanisms only need to be described once. a) CVD, b) Nephropathy, c) Retinopathy, d)
2. Which tissues are involved in glucose homeostasis? Briefly describe how each tissue contributes to glucose control.
3. Once glucose level rises, beta cells are set to secret insulin. Please make a list of steps that it takes for insulin to be secreted.
4. Is insulin signaling identical in different tissues? Describe commonality and differences (if any) between tissues
5. How does obesity increase T2D susceptibility?
6. Many genetic factors have been uncovered for T2D. Which processes do the T2D risk genes affect?
7. How does PPARg affect lipogenesis and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue?
8. Do different diabetic patients have the same type of genetic risks? Do people respond identically to the same diet? How would your answers to these questions affect diabetes prevention and therapy?
9. Briefly explain how each of the following affects T2D (mechanisms). a) High fat diet; b) High fiber diet, c) Metformin, d) SGLT2 inhibitors, e) Dpp4 inhibitors, f) Dpp4 inhibitors, g) TZDs
10. Reciprocal relationship between COVID and diabetes has been observed. What do you think could be the mechanisms that make glucose control an important player in COVID-19 treatment and mortality? Also, what could be the mechanisms underlie the increased diabetes risk post-COVID?


Diabetes/Glucose/Insulin Homework
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Approximately two-thirds of all deaths in adults with type 2 diabetes are caused by heart disease (CVD), damaging the heart and blood vessels. People who have diabetes have a higher risk of cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, silent myocardial infarction, diabetic cardiomyopathy, stroke, and perioperative and intraoperative CV instability. Increased inflammatory infiltration, necrotic core size, and extensive atherosclerotic in the coronary arteries are all factors that contribute to diabetes's role in atherosclerosis.
Nephropathy is a long-term kidney ailment that can occur in people with diabetes. Excess blood glucose levels can cause kidney damage, which results in nephropathy. A chronic kidney is a form of long-term kidney damage brought on by uncontrolled blood sugar levels. Diabetic nephropathy is associated with high blood pressure and the vascular repercussions of altered hemodynamics, such as endothelial function, calcium, and sclerosis.

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