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4 pages/≈1100 words
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APA
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Mathematics & Economics
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Coursework
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English (U.S.)
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Topic:

The Concept of Language of Valuation in Ecological Economics (Coursework Sample)

Instructions:

Identify the main concept/tool of ecological economics that the article uses (if there are
more than one, choose one)
• Define the concept
• Explain how the concept is used in the particular case study of the article

source..
Content:


The Concept of Language of Valuation in Ecological Economics
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The construction of the Manta-Manaus axis is an economic-based development that intends to increase the economic capacities of the regions it passes through. The planned transport corridor stretches from Ecuador in the the port of Manta to Manaus in Brazilian Amazonia. The planned development has both proponents and opponents based on their different language valuation. Language valuation is an important ecological economic concept that identifies conflicts that arise due to the different interests towards the use of natural resources. The conflicts between the proponents and opponents of the Manta-Manaus axis are based on the differences on how they value the conflicted resources. In the planning of the project, some of its proponents have included financial institutions, business interests, the public sector and army. On the other hand, the opponents include peasants, indigenous communities, conservational organizations, ecologist, and human rights organizations (Bonilla, 2013). Therefore, understanding the different valuations of the natural resources by the various stakeholders of the Manta-Manaus axis will be used in explaining the language valuation concept.
The focus on economic growth has increased the use of natural resources at an exponential rate that is unsustainable thus negatively impacting the natural ecosystems. This has led to environmental conflicts that are being experienced around the world as stakeholders dependent on the natural resources resist various economic activities in their environment (Joan, Kallis, Veuthey, Walter, & Temper, 2010). In most cases, the conflicts are as a result of local resistance to economic projects that tend to resist local communities in accessing natural resources, degradation of natural resources important to their survival, and pose of health risk to the communities. However, it is to be understood that not everyone in the community will be against the resource extraction activities. In most of the instances, multiple stakeholders will have different views and opinions which are supported by various factors. Some disagreements within society over natural resources can be based primarily on the technology to be used or distribution of monetary benefits. In this case, solutions are easy as the battle lines can be controlled. However, some conflicts are more complex as they are not based on technological or monetary aspects but rely on issues such as perceptions, livelihood, and values (Avcı, Adaman, & Özkaynak, 2010). In the case of Manta-Manaus axis project, the conflicts are non-monetary thus making them hard to be resolved thus the stalling of the project for years.
The Manta-Manaus axis has proponents who value its development based on the monetary benefit they stand to gain from its construction. An analysis of the proponents for the project will identify the fact that their interest is based from the economic perspective. The financial institutions supporting the project base their decision on their interest on the financial compensation they will derive from the project once it is completed. Business stakeholders in the regions where the project is expected to reach, support its development as it will provide them with easy access to resources that are scarce in other areas thus turning them into monetary benefits. Construction companies also taking part in the project are supporting its implementation as they will benefit from the revenue generated in the construction activities. The public sector has also largely supported the project based on the promise of economic development for the country. The project has become a national project in which the Ecuadorian government identifies numerous economic benefits for its people. Therefore, based on the proponents of the project, their perspective is based on economic gain which is translated in monetary benefits. For the proponents, they share the same interest and so will support the implementation of the project as long as their interests are catered for (Bonilla, 2013).
The opponents of Manta-Manaus axis project base their valuation in non-monetary aspects therefore, making it hard to provide a solution for the conflict. Peasants are some of the opponents who place high value on their land and the community they have established over time. They believe that the implementation of the project will deprive them of their important resource and relocate them thus losing the established community aspect. Indigenous communities are also part of those opposing the project as they value the territory surrounding them including animals, plants, water, land, and even air. They have established sacred sites in these territories which also add spiritual value to their areas. Self-sufficiency is critical to them and they heavily rely on natural resources for sustenance. Other opponents include conservational organizations that value biodiversity and believe the project will destroy the natural ecosystems thus negatively impacting the environment. Ecologists and human rights organizations also

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