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assignments on different questions of comparative education course (Coursework Sample)


This paper is course work assignment of undergraduate student .This is 8 pages assignments consist of 4 questions related to comparative education subject. Following questions are discussed in this papers are:
Q1) what are the meaning and scope of comparative education.
Q2) what are the different approaches to comparative education.
Q3) summarize the parallel education system in Pakistan.
Q4) what are the problems and issues of education in developing countries.


Meaning and scope of comparative education:
Comparative education is the study of two or more education system. It is the process of comparing different education system practiced by different countries based on each country’s educational philosophy.
We study the current educational theory and practices of other countries and compare it by our country educational system .It help us to improve the education system in our country. And adopt some aspects for improvement of our education system.
The scope of something includes everything that it can relate to or can be applied to. Scope of comparative education means the areas covered by the discipline. Hence the scope of comparative education is very broad. The scope of comparative education consist of different perspectives some of them are:
Philosophy, aim and objectives of education
History of education
Teaching method
Curricular and co-curricular activities
Educational infrastructure such as buildings and facilities
Examination method Administration.
We do comparison of these all and other different aspect of education system with in and out of countries for making our education system better.
Approaches to comparative education:
There are number of methodological approaches used by scholars in order to compare education system insight and across countries.. Like other social sciences comparative education has been studied at different times of its development with different methodological approach .some of the main approaches of comparative education are
Statistical/quantitative approach
Descriptive approach
Historical approach
Analytical/scientific approach
Area studied approach
Problem solving approach
Statistical/quantitative method:
As the name indicate this approach based on the quantification of educational phenomena
In this method various type of educational data are collected about a country example data about literacy rat number of school, number of teacher, teacher students ratio different education system of countries
Descriptive approach:
As name show in this approach we give the detail description of the education system of country. We give data description of educational phenomena. For example henry Bernard describe the education system of the various states of U.S.A and foreign countries in the American journal of education
Historical approach:
In this we do comparisons of education system based on evaluation over a period of time. In this approach we also try to understand all those geographical, social ,racial, political ,religious and linguistic factors which influence the education system of country.
Analytical /scientific approach:
This method follows an empirical approach comprising of some forms of a research design, data collection and analysis. For example in this approach comparison occur on the basis of empirical analysis of the factor that help in the success of education system of particular area.
Area studied approach:
In this approach comparison occur on the basis of study of an area/place/country with an aim to understand part or whole of its education systems in terms of process or products.
Problem solving approach:
In this approach we compare the education system of country find out the educational related problems and try to solve them in the light of solution found in comparative situation/ area.
These are some of the most noticeable approaches to comparative education
Parallel education system in Pakistan.
Parallel education system means a school or the chain of school has its own curriculum, examination systems and degrees/certificates.
Pakistan also has parallel education system with their own distinctive, sometimes different curriculum, teaching methods, examination systems, education culture and boards.
In Pakistan there are three education systems that run parallel to one another
* Government board affiliated schools
* British council affiliated schools
* Deeni madaris /religious schools
They have their own unique characteristics and settings.
Deeni madaris provides religious education to the students .There are five governing and regulating board in Pakistan called waqfs.Most of madaris are affiliated with one of these waqfs.ittehad tanzimat madaris-e-deeniya is the apex committee of these waqfs.All of these madaris strictly follow separated education system for boys and girls.
Next one is the government affiliated schools. Most of the schools in the country follow government affiliated school system .that mean that they are affiliated with different government board according to their level. Most of these types of school offer separated education system for boys and girls in both public and private sectors and some schools in private sector offer coeducation. These school mostly follow the books and curriculum designed by the national and provincial curriculum and text books boards
The third one and most important education system in the country are British council affiliated schools .these provide (pre-ordinary, ordinary and advance) level education. Most of these schools are affiliated with the British council, Pakistan is responsible for the supervision of the schools, inducting examination and teachers training etc.
There are some of the pros and cons of parallel education system in Pakistan some of the pros of parallel education system in Pakistan are:
* Through parallel system different types of education system fulfil the needs of all children belongs to lower middle and high class in society.
* Most of the public schools are free and provide free primary education to all children
* The introduction of O level and A level have certainly improved the standard and quality of education of both the international as well as the local educational system of Pakistan.
* Through parallel education system a different new things are occurring in the education system which is showing good impact Which includes appreciating co-education and English medium system all these brighten educational system in Pakistan.
* Students have opportunities to gain knowledge of Quran hadith Islamic jurisprudence and its principles, Arabic language and its grammar.
Parallel education system also have cons .some of the cons of parallel education system are:
* These three dissimilar education system are producing students with different thinking and ideologies which are to a great extent in clash with one another. Such as students who are educated from English medium institution are labeled as liberal and agent of the west while those educated from madaris are labelled as extremist.
* The students who get education from madaris are without the knowledge of mathematics science and English, these thing hindering the student’s chances to find stable jobs and positions in the societies when they leave the madaris.
* Many government system do not have proper infrastructure and lack of basic needs that directly affect the quality of education.
* The institution affiliated by government are mostly only producing clerk and unemployment youth.
* Mostly the curriculum is outdate very basic with no focus on critical thinking and problem solving in many systems.
* These create a disparity among different system in the basis of their preference to Urdu and English language and medium of instruction.
* we can say that parallel education system creating inequality in the society instead of acting as a catalyst for unification of the society
Problems and issues of education in developing countries:
Education is integral part of society and it is the most important factor in the development of developing countries. But developing countries faced different issued and problems in education system.
The m

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