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Scientific Journal: Explain the Importance of the Background Abstract (Coursework Sample)

Instructions:

this was just a review of a journal paper. the task was to search for a journal and discuss it: it's structure and explain the importance of the: background, abstract, literature review e.t.c

source..
Content:
Name
Instructor’s name
Course
Date
Background
1 This was done so that we could accustom ourselves with the process of searching for credible academic resources.
2 The paper was copyrighted and not licensed for free distribution. Only registered members and institutions have access to the paper.
3 Plagiarism is the use of other peoples work without acknowledging them. It involves using other people’s ideas as your own and failing to cite them.
4 Some possible penalties for plagiarism are: legal consequences, destroyed academic and professional reputation, monetary penalties and dismissal from the university.
Abstract
1 The purpose of the abstract is to give a brief overview of the paper. It is a snapshot of the entire paper. An abstract makes it easy to identify the main content of the paper quickly and accurately. The reader relies on the abstract to decide whether to read the whole document or not ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"xhIqmNYr","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Day)","plainCitation":"(Day)"},"citationItems":[{"id":28,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sWlnLpFf/items/6MD9ASRH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sWlnLpFf/items/6MD9ASRH"],"itemData":{"id":28,"type":"article-journal","title":"How to write a scientific paper","container-title":"ASM News","page":"486-494","volume":"42","author":[{"family":"Day","given":"Robert A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1975"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Day 34).
2 The abstract usually conveys: the purpose of the paper, the methods used and the results/findings from the study.
3 The authors exposed the seedlings to: ambient and elevated co2, current (170c) soil temperatures and elevated soil temperatures (220c) and high (100%) to low light conditions (18%) for one growing season.
4 The most important results from these experiment was that, elevated soil temperature stimulated net photosynthesis by 18% under low light intensity; But reduced under high light treatment. Elevated co2 increased to 100% under elevated soil temperatures and 48% under current soil temperatures. From the experiment, the authors predicted that, increase in atmospheric co2 will enhance the growth of mountain maple in canopy gaps.
5 The authors have not cited any work in their abstract.
6 It is not normal practice to cite work by others in an abstract.
7 An abstract is usually one paragraph in length, ranging from 100 to 500 words.
Literature review
1 The purpose of literature review in the introduction is to help develop a theoretical framework. It also gives a general picture of what others have done on the same topic and help the authors to develop their methodology.
2 Many studies on co2 and light mainly focused on effects of elevated co2 on plants grown at low light conditions. But failed to address the issue of how elevated co2 and high light intensity interact to affect physiological characteristics of shade-tolerant plants. This creates a research gap.
3 The general research problem for the study was, how mountain maple respond to changes in light conditions which are associated to canopy gaps under changing climatic conditions. Which might have important ecological implications on the species composition and distribution in the future.
4 The specific hypothesis for the study was that, elevated co2 would enhance photosynthetic processes in mountain maple seedling in elevated soil temperature.
5 Only those statements that are specific are cited (prediction on expected increase in co2 levels). While those that are too general are not cited, such as the authors thoughts.
6 "Regeneration is a term used to describe the process by which a living organism returns to its original form following damage or loss. The ability of an organism to regenerate may be limited by the organism’s complexity. Freshwater planarians exhibit exceptional development plasticity that permits these simple triploblastic metazoans to regenerate completely from tiny fragments #1. The process of regeneration is based upon the proliferation and differentiation of undifferentiated, totipotent stem-cell call neoblasts #2. Neoblasts migrate to the site of injury where they differentiate into missing cell types #3.”
7 (Alvarado,2003)
8 (Baguna and Salo,202)
9 (Jensen et al.,1992)
Materials and methods
1 The materials and methods give a complete description of the experimental procedure. It explains how the experiment was done and the materials used. Usually contains technical details of the methods to be used in the paper ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"VzhGedI2","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Day)","plainCitation":"(Day)"},"citationItems":[{"id":28,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sWlnLpFf/items/6MD9ASRH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sWlnLpFf/items/6MD9ASRH"],"itemData":{"id":28,"type":"article-journal","title":"How to write a scientific paper","container-title":"ASM News","page":"486-494","volume":"42","author":[{"family":"Day","given":"Robert A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1975"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Day 34).
2 If you are familiar with that area of research, you should be able to pick up the paper and replicate it using materials and methods,
3 The methods presented are not presented as a list of items and chemicals to be used, but written in paragraph format.
4 The methods presented are in paragraph format. They are not presented as a list of steps.
5 All the materials and procedures should be presented in paragraph format and should not restate what is in the laboratory Manual.
6 There are no experimental results given in the materials and methods section. Only the procedures and the tools used.
7 Yes. There is literature review in the materials and methods. The literature review aids in explaining some of the experimental procedures.
8 The authors cited, because the experimental procedure used was not their own idea. They referred on how to regulate soil temperature from another source.
Results section
1 The results section gives a complete description of results from the experiment. It is a detailed description of the results that were obtained from the experiment.
2 The data is presented in paragraph format; although tables and figures can be used as visual aids, to aid in the presentation of the data.
3 Yes. In some cases, it is necessary and can’t be avoided. The data presented in the table may require a figure such as a graph to give clearer details.
4 It is not sufficient to present all the results in tables and figures; a descriptive text is required. In fact tables and figures are only used as visual aids.
5 The descriptive text in the results section gives detailed information on the findings of the experiment. It describes the results of the experiment.
6 There were no methodological statements explaining how the experiment was done, in the results section. No methodological statements are allowed in the results section ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"NrektMYn","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Day)","plainCitation":"(Day)"},"citationItems":[{"id":28,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sWlnLpFf/items/6MD9ASRH"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/sWlnLpFf/items/6MD9ASRH"],"itemData":{"id":28,"type":"article-journal","title":"How to write a scientific paper","container-title":"ASM News","page":"486-494","volume":"42","author":[{"family":"Day","given":"Robert A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1975"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Day 34).
7 The authors have highlighted the p values in bold. It is helpful since they can easily be identified.
8
* a
* b
* c
* ab
* ab
9 A, represents net photosynthesis.
10 I would have to compare the data in the columns to see whether there is any difference in the variables. This will be a daunting task and would have been easier if a graph was provided.
Discussion
1 The purpose of the discussion is to...
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