11 pages/≈3025 words
Health, Medicine, Nursing
Management of Autism spectrum disorder in children (Dissertation Introduction Sample)
The introduction chapter of disseratation source..
Management of Autism spectrum disorder in children Introduction The autism is a broad term and it illustrates a disorder of brain that influences communication and social interaction and frequently results in the stereotyped and repetitive behavior. This disorder appears during the initial stages of life and usually remains throughout the life. It is basically an enigmatic and complex disturbance of the function of brain and is described as the primary areas of particular abnormalities in mutual interaction, repetitive behavior and communication. It has been examined that there are number of factors responsible for ASD such as environmental, metabolic and genetic factors with particular causes being illustrated in the in less than 11% cases (Nicholas, 2014, p.n.d). The children who are influenced by autism are poor in the social communication, social interaction and repetitive behaviors, the children are unable to make eye to contact, and they are not able to read the facial expressions. It has been studied by Centre of Disease Control that about 40% of the individuals who are influenced by ASD not able to communicate with their friends and family and it is also concluded such children are not capable to comprehend the language (Mao, 2007, p.64). The occurrence of ASD has been increased during the past few years and it has been studied that one out of 111 children below age 8 suffer from autism. It has been examined by a research that in Korea the rate of incidence of ASD is about 2.6% or among 38 children one is affected by this disorder, which illustrates a 57% enhance from the year 2002 (Solomon, 2008, pp.1474-1484). The awareness has been generated among the people about ASD therefore children from autism can be easily diagnosed and the autism can be understood predominantly in this advanced era. The most commonly used diagnostic methodology for autism is ADOS "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule" which is a sort of interactive assessment conducted by a qualified examiner. This assessment comprises of four modules and appropriate section is selected on the basis of age and communicative level of language of the individual being observed (Mao, 2007, p.64). Module 1 is planned for the nonverbal and young children and module 4 is designed for the adults who suffer from autism. The instructor communicates with the children or adults in a variety of developmentally suitable tasks and achieves particular behaviors according to the set criteria. The diagnosis of autism has been considered as an essential element for the treatment. This diagnosis of autism was modified and "Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised" was introduced, the interview comprised of 93 questions associating to the current behaviors and skills (Levy and Hyman, 2008, pp.803-820). The scores were determined on the basis of progress in communication, stereotyped, social interaction and repetitive behaviors of the individual. It was evaluated that "Autism Diagnostic Interview ADI-R and "Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)" when used in combination gave reliability and accuracy of diagnosis of ASD. The outcomes of ADOS and ADI-R diagnosis were compared by the two researchers and it was examined that it was found to be significant in stimulating the language and cognitive capabilities in the individuals with autism (Baird, 2003, pp.488-493). For the therapeutic purpose of autism many interventions have been recommended and have also found successful in the treatment of children with autism, it has also been studied that along with the interventions these children also need the moral support of their family, friends and care givers. For the management of ASD in children the most significant approaches are behavioral approaches and interventions of medical that will be discussed in this article. Behavioral interventions for the management of autism This approach has been illustrated by Skinner in the theory in 1935, it has been described that all approaches should be learned. The positive and negative reinforcement should be utilized to verify the conditioning, behavioral and operant responses by the process of associative learning (Wong and Smith, 2006, pp.901-909). The instructional strategies are also present in this intervention to treat the children affected by autism. These interventions have been considered as the promotion of the acquisition of the knowledge and skills to help children in developing the individual and independent responsibility; it does not only include academic information but also comprises communication, adaptive skills, generalization and socialization of the capabilities across various environments (Bozkus-Genc, 2007, pp.1655-1661). The clinicians and physicians are frequently in a state to guide the families of those children to support and help them in evaluation of the appropriateness of the services that are offered. It has been examined that in the past two decades programs and researches have contributed widely in the interventions of behavior for the children with autism (Kasari, 2006, pp.611-62). These interventions have been found to be significant in the development of communication skills in the children with autism and produced better results. It has been examined that a number of particular methodologies have been utilized in the educational plans for the children with autism. Many strategies have been proposed to enhance the communication and social skills in the children such as behavioral approaches. The behavioral approaches comprise of applied behavioral analysis and picture exchange communication, developmental strategies comprised of influence of computer based programs that will be discussed. Applied behavioral approaches This approach has been illustrated as a systematic approach and it has been examined that environmental factors are responsible to cause significant affect on the children with autism. To improve the particular skills and to suppress the undesired actions in the children this approach has been adopted (McConnell, 2002, pp.351-372). This approach has been considered as the procedure in which the interventions are applied depend upon the standards of learning consequent from the practical psychology study to change the behavior systematically and to illustrate that the interventions utilized are accountable for the improvements observed in behavior. These approaches are used to enhance and sustain the desirable behaviors that have been adopted, decrease or narrow the circumstances under which they transpire, illustrate advance skills and common behaviors to new situations and environment (Kasari, 2006, pp.611-62). ABA concentrates on the consistent measurement and point evaluation of the apparent behavior within appropriate settings consisting the school, home and community. It has been examined by research that behavioral approach is a scientific analysis to understand the behavior depend upon the standards of operant and respondent conditioning. This approach comprises of behavioral analysis application and standards of the learning hypothesis to decrease or eliminate the complications of behaviors and also demonstrate advance skills (Nickels, 2010, p.n.d).Â . The ancestor consequences and conditions of behavior are examined and manipulated as well as the principles of negative and positive shaping, reinforcement and fading are utilized to reduce or increase the target activities. The positive support is used to reinforce a behavior by considering that attitude with something that is valued or desired. The skills are racked into minute steps and the children with ASD are provided opportunities to learn advance skills with collaboration (Kasari, 2006, pp.611-62). The applied behavioral analysis has been considered as most efficient intervention for the children with ASD. The affect of behavioral approach has been examined by research and 5 children suffering from autism were considered. The influence of the ABA was analyzed through studies and positive response was documented by this intervention (Sherer, 2005, pp.525-538). The skills of communication were improved in the children with autism. The training was done is such a manner that children with ASD were illustrated an object by the examiner such as analyst seized a toy and the individuals were told that "Itâ€™s a toy" during the period of therapy appropriate attention was observed during the course of intervention. Picture exchange communication The system of picture exchange (PECS) was introduced by Frost and Bondy to illustrate the self-initiated practical communication in the individuals with autism. This strategy primarily concentrates on training the child to pass a picture to communication colleague in swap for a preferred activity or item (Mahatmya, 2008, pp.106-108). There are six stages in picture exchange communication which are exchange of picture, increased space, discrimination of picture, and construction of sentence, questionsresponding and commenting. It has been observed that in the initial four stages the focus is basically given on illustrating the child of how to use a character for making a request, whereas the last two concentrate on expanding the variety of functional communication used by the adolescent. The children were also trained to answer a question and to make direct contact of eye during this intervention the children were primarily taught to develop the confidence that would increase their skills of communication (Marckel, 2006, pp.100-115).It has been determined by study that by the approach of picture exchange communication weakness and strengths of children with autism can be determined. This intervention also helps to elucidate the perplexities of the pronunciation and anxiety that should be demonstrated by the methodology of communication and can also be used in the in the practical assessmen...
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- Management of Autism spectrum disorder in childrenDescription: Management of Autism spectrum disorder in children Health, Medicine, Nursing Dissertation Chapter - Introduction Chapter...11 pages/≈3025 words| 18 Sources | Harvard | Health, Medicine, Nursing | Dissertation Introduction |