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Business & Marketing
Dissertat. Methodology
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The Impact of Strategic Airlines Alliances on Brand Management Practices: The Case of Royal Jordanian Airlines in Oneworld Alliance (Dissertat. Methodology Sample)


Write the Research methodology chapter based on the attached research proposal and Introduction chapter on: The Impact of Strategic Airlines Alliances on Brand Management Practices: The Case of Royal Jordanian Airlines in Oneworld Alliance


The Impact of Strategic Airlines Alliances on Brand Management Practices: The Case of Royal Jordanian Airlines in Oneworld Alliance
List of Contents
TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u List of Contents PAGEREF _Toc378328955 \h 2List of Tables PAGEREF _Toc378328956 \h 3List of Figures PAGEREF _Toc378328957 \h 4List of Abbreviations PAGEREF _Toc378328958 \h 5Chapter Three - Research Methodology PAGEREF _Toc378328959 \h 63.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc378328960 \h 63.2 The Methodological Approach PAGEREF _Toc378328961 \h 63.2.1 The Interpretive Research Approach PAGEREF _Toc378328962 \h 73.3 A qualitative approach, its limitations and strengths. PAGEREF _Toc378328963 \h 83.4 Research Methods PAGEREF _Toc378328964 \h 93.4.1 Case study Approach PAGEREF _Toc378328965 \h 103.4.2 Royal Jordanian Airlines as a Settings for the Study PAGEREF _Toc378328966 \h 113.5 The Population and Sample Size PAGEREF _Toc378328967 \h 173.6 The Justifications of Case Study Approach PAGEREF _Toc378328968 \h 203.6.1 Validity and Generalizability PAGEREF _Toc378328969 \h 213.6.2 Reliability PAGEREF _Toc378328970 \h 233.7 Pilot Study PAGEREF _Toc378328971 \h 233.7.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc378328972 \h 243.7.2 Pilot Study Analysis PAGEREF _Toc378328973 \h 253.7.3 Preliminary Findings PAGEREF _Toc378328974 \h 253.7.4 Summary PAGEREF _Toc378328975 \h 283.8 Reviewing and Translation Issues PAGEREF _Toc378328976 \h 293.9 Interview Transcription PAGEREF _Toc378328977 \h 293.10 Analysis of Data PAGEREF _Toc378328978 \h 303.10.1 Preliminary Results: PAGEREF _Toc378328979 \h 303.11 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc378328980 \h 32References PAGEREF _Toc378328981 \h 33Appendices PAGEREF _Toc378328982 \h 36Appendix A: Interview Guide PAGEREF _Toc378328983 \h 37Appendix B: Formal Letters PAGEREF _Toc378328984 \h 42Appendix C: Interviewees’ Names and Titles PAGEREF _Toc378328985 \h 44Appendix D: Interview Questions Reviewers Panel and Translators PAGEREF _Toc378328986 \h 50Appendix E: Overview of Oneworld Alliance Members and RJ PAGEREF _Toc378328987 \h 51
List of Tables
TOC \c "Table" Table 1. Alternative Terms for the Main Research Paradigms PAGEREF _Toc378328130 \h 7
Table 2. Matching interview questions with the research questions PAGEREF _Toc378328131 \h 16
Table 3. Sample Distribution and Sampling Methods PAGEREF _Toc378328132 \h 19
Table 4. Five ‘misunderstandings’ of Using Case Study PAGEREF _Toc378328133 \h 22
Table 5. Royal Jordanian Slogans Over the Past 50 Years PAGEREF _Toc378328134 \h 60
List of Figures
TOC \h \z \c "Figure" Figure 1 A single example taken from the pilot analysis PAGEREF _Toc377543610 \h 27
List of Abbreviations
AA: American Airlines
ASA: Air Services Agreements
BA: British Airways
GDP: Gross Domestic Product
GDS: Global Distribution System
HKJ: Hashemite Kingdome of Jordan
LLCs: Low Cost Carriers
M&A: Merger and Acquisition’
MEA: Middle East Airlines- Air Leban
MENA: Middle East and North Africa Region
OSAs: Open Skies Agreements
RJ: Royal Jordanian Airlines
TSC: Transport, Storage, and Communications sector
UK: United Kingdom
USA: United States of America
US Airway: United States Airways
Chapter Three - Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction
This chapter outlines the methodology adopted by the research, including a study of the airlines which will be the focus of the exploration, the data collection methods, the interviews and details of both the pilot study and the main data collection. The chapter is divided into sections. Each section handles a distinct element of the chapter. The methodological approach section examines the positivistic approach (it can also be called quantitative, objectivist, scientific, experimentalist, traditionalist and imperialist approach) and the phenomenological or interpretivism approach (it can also be called qualitative, subjectivist, humanistic, Interpretivist and post-positivist and naturalistic approaches), before finally settling at the interpretive research approach. The limitations and strengths of qualitative approach are explored under the section of qualitative approach, the case study approach and the case study of the Royal Jordanian Airlines are explored under the research methods section, population and sample size are explored under one section and the case study approach’s reliability, validity and generalization are examined under the justifications of case study approach section. The pilot study section explores the motivation behind the pilot study, pilot study analysis, preliminary findings and the sections summary. Still on the same chapter, the following sections are discussed: Reviewing and Translation Issues, Interview Transcription, Analysis of Data (where preliminary results are examined) and finally the chapter summary (which serves as the chapter conclusion).
3.3. Types of Research approaches
It is better to understand which of the research approaches to follow, by considering some fundamental beliefs, principles and assumptions that on which any qualitative research is founded, as this will determine the evidence, data and methods that should be considered appropriate to study and how it should be interpreted (Daymon & Holloway, p. 112). Any investigation into marketing communications and public relations are determined by the researchers understanding of how to study communication and the world in general which is mostly associated with a certain specific research paradigm with principal assumptions regarding communication and the best procedures to be used in studying it (Daymon & Holloway, p. 122). This has resulted to grouping of research studies based on the researcher’s thinking (which varies from researcher to researcher) of what is communication, researcher’s divergent versions of what the world consist through different kinds of research and what social reality is to every researcher. This has resulted to three main approaches or aspects of research paradigm: ontological, epistemological and methodological approaches.
Ontological approach concerns itself with the study of the nature of being, social reality, and general ideas involving and related to human existence (Daymon & Holloway, p. 113). It tries to answer such questions as; ‘what is existence?’ and ‘what really can be said to exist?’, and to a greater extend influences the methodological and epistemological approaches to any research study (Daymon & Holloway, p. 113). On the other hand, epistemological approach deals with the theory of knowledge and the philosophical study that determines the validity of knowledge (Daymon & Holloway, p. 113). This approach tries to establish what the world really is, the relationship between the known and the inquirer and the nature of knowledge and the way it is acquired. Lastly but not least, the methodological approach concerns itself with the ideas, principles, procedures and rules that govern a particular field of study (Daymon & Holloway, p. 133). It is worth clarifying that the methodological approach is not synonymous with methods which are a systematic procedure of following a step-by-step approach to solve a given task, but rather a way of establishing how knowledge is acquired (Daymon & Holloway). The methods are the tools and procedures for carrying out research whilst methodology is the theories, concepts and principles that these methods follow (Daymon & Holloway). Since the researcher main aim was to inquire and gather sufficient knowledge of what the OneWorld Alliance really is and the relationship between it and The Royal Jordanian Airlines (the use of the Oneworld Alliance brand name by the later) through use of interviews and questionnaires, methodological approach stands out as the most suitable approach of the three to be used in this research.
3.2 The Methodological Approach
This study seeks to understand why alliances in branding are considered a key area in global airline industry and how these alliances have shaped the global airlines industry by use of a given methodological approach. Any given methodology, it has been argued, is linked to the interrelations of substantive problems, evidence sources and major assumptions about society ADDIN EN.CITE Skocpol1984Vision and method in historical sociology(Skocpol, 1984)0521297249Vision and method in historical sociologySkocpol, Theda136262378161984112Cambridge University Press1362623781(Skocpol, 1984). Thus, a methodology is concerned with deciding on the most applicable way, amongst alternatives, to answer the research questions scientifically. The most suitable methodological framework is regarded as an essential first stage for research, as it will direct the way the researcher collects knowledge and reveals the social process ADDIN EN.CITE Burrell1994Sociological paradigms and organisational analysis(Burrell & Morgan, 1994)043582130XSociological paradigms and organisational analysisBurrell, GibsonMorgan,Gareth136262350061994111Heinemann1362623500(Burrell & Morgan, 1994). In general, there are two philosophical paradigms of research design; positivism and phenomenology or interpretivism ADDIN EN.CITE Creswell2008Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches(Creswell, 2008)1412965578Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approachesCreswell, John W136252899362008109Sage Publications, Incorporated1362528993(Creswell, 2008). These two philosophies are generally used by the social sciences, and particularly for market research. They involve significant assumptions and methodological implications regarding how they interpret the social world and how social science should be conducted ADDIN EN.CITE Creswell2003Advanced mixed methods research designs(Creswell ...
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