4 pages/≈1100 words
How Relaxation techniques influence Adult Recall (Dissertat. Methodology Sample)
Relaxation Techniques and How They Help In Witnesses Recall
AcknowledgementsMany thanks to my supervisor for the endless help she provided throughout this study and the support she gave to me. Many thanks also go to Greenwich University Library because this work would not have been probable without all the research that was made available to me.
AbstractTestimony from wittiness is one of the widely and most influential methods used in court. It is also note able that witnesses recall preparation should be based on helping witnesses to be able to present a message that is clear and effective. Thus, Witness recall and preparation are two important aspects that require great concern from all concerned parties. The specific objective of this research will be to show that relaxation techniques can help memory recall among crime witnesses. In this study the hypothetical foundation will be made because it will help giving more support to the topic under study. The hypothesis in this case will be as follows. HO= People who practice relaxation techniques maybe can recall more easily memories as witnesses in a crime scene. HA= People who practice relaxation techniques may be cannot recall more easily memories as witnesses in a crime. False convictions remain a key issue in courts due to lack of clear or relevant evidence from crime witnesses. The study will analyse a number of relaxation techniques and try to examine the degree to which they affect the memory recall of a witness
Table of ContentsRelaxation Techniques and How They Help In Witnesses Recall 1 Students Name. 1 Acknowledgements. 2 Abstract 3 Table of Contents. 3 Chapter1. 6 1.2 Hypothetical Foundation. 9 Chapter 2: Literature Review.. 10 2.1 Relaxation techniques. 12 2.2 Eye closure. 12 2.3 Cognitive interviews. 13 2.4 Meditation. 14 2.5 Self hypnosis. 16 2.6 Self efficacy approach. 17 2.6.1 Self efficacy sources. 18 Chapter 3: Theoretical Perspectives. 20 3.1 ABC relaxation theory. 20 3.1.1 R states, R altitude, and R beliefs. 21 3.2 ABC relaxation theory View.. 22 3.3 Confidence theories. 23 Chapter 4. 24 4.1 Informal process. 24 4.1.1 Cognitive dialogue. 25 4.1.2 Memory Recuperation. 26 4.1.3 Applied Techniques. 26 4.1.4 Progressive Muscle Relaxation. 27 4.1.5 Biofeedback. 27 4.1.6 Brainwaves. 28 4.1.7 Skin conductance. 29 4.1.8 Autogenic Training. 29 4.1.9 Deep breathing. 30 4.1.10 Self-hypnosis. 30 4.1.11 Visualization: 31 Chapter 5: Data collection Methods. 32 5.1The interpretive research approach. 33 5.2 Research Methodology. 34 5.3 Sample. 35 5.4 Instrumentation. 36 5.5 Data Collection. 36 5.6 Data Analysis. 36 Chapter 6: Results, Discussion and Conclusion, 37 6.1 Demographic analysis. 40 6.2 Criminal scene. 41 6.2.1 Questions before the criminal scene. 42 6.2.2 Questions during the crime scene. 44 CHAPTER 7: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION.. 48 7.1 Introduction. 48 7.2 Objective summary: relaxation techniques can help in memory recall among witnesses. 48 7.3 Recommendations. 49 7.4 Limitations of the study. 49 7.5 Suggestions for further research. 50 7.6 Conclusion. 50 Chapter1
1.0 Introduction Testimony from witness is one of the widely and most influential methods used in court. In this case witness preparation is a common practice for both the attorneys and trial consultants in bolstering witness’s capability to testify. For example, in the year 2009 a clarification in regard a witness capability to testify was clearly made. This research managed to note that witnesses recall preparation should be based on helping witnesses to be able to present a message that is clear and effective. Again Neal report cites clearly that the American Bar Association maintains that preparation of witnesses can not incorporate the policies to mislead the court. As a result of preparation and testimony usage, physiological prose has managed to proliferate witnesses’ related research. Some of this research includes examination of the impacts of biased information on eye witness confidence and accuracy. This is a term that has come to be referred to as misinformation. An eyewitness plays a very significant role in the forensic process. From the outset perspective the data that they are able to collect as well as the description that these witnesses provide has a great role in shaping the police inquiries. At the end of this process the provided testimonies in the court of law plays a big role or have significant effects on the trial outcome. This ability of eye wittiness to provide accurate account of the witnessed event has been an area of interest for psychologist. Therefore, they have been researching basing their interest on what they have observed over a centaury, following the fact that a there is a vast of these majority research that has been conducted in the 70’s. As a result of these researches a lot has been learnt of the ways which witnesses can be mistaken, or mislead into terror, however, very little has been discovered on ways to help them remember the observed information well. It is important to note that the extent to which a witness can be able to provide detailed information about an observed past event is driven by both the memory quality and their willingness to respond to the questions asked. Questions asked to the witnesses are designed in way that the remembered information demonstrates their effectiveness is higher than just the response bias, but it’s a constitution of improved memory. There is several relaxation techniques applied such as closing of eyes. There are those that help them to give les incorrect information while others are not. The current paper bucks this trend, and discusses research into helping witnesses to remember more details, more accurately.
1.1 Background statement The forensic practice, for example, requires any witnesses recall only the truth and the whole truth and not anything else, but the truth. In the case of eye witness maximum information is required to be recalled and it is expected to be true with the minimum amount of error. One thing to note with the human memory as far as the issues of information recall is concerned is that, it is imperfect, reconstructive, and vulnerable to pressure and objective oriented establishment. It is not objective to take such intention in this case or ground cover. However, is crucial to take it for granted the memory fallibility, and none the less ask how an interviewer can and a complaint witness optimize their recall. This indicates that there are two interrelated problem that needs to be overcome. Witness recall and preparation are two important aspects that require great concern from all concerned parties. These two aspects also call s for objective measures that are empirically established to measure the credibility of witness given out. According to the credibility witness scale, witness credibility is conceptualized as a four factor raise which comprises of confidence, trustworthiness, knowledge, and likeability. As a result of this measure utility has been evident more so in expert witness study. What is lacking so far is a theoretical perspective that is empirically derived as a valid measure of witness ability to recall and testify. Such a scale development contains both applied and theoretical significance. To demonstrate conceptual and psychometric properties directed to the goal of assessing cognitive and behavioral perceptions of witnesses about testifying is a big challenge. These established areas once addressed and assessed effectively they can aid in identifying certain testimony components’ to be improved through witness preparation with will result in an effective recall. This study can also draw from self efficacy literature making it simple to define these phenomena’s and be able to desperate constructs and be able to get the implication that gives room for juror perceptions, and formulate hypotheses for the present study. As indentified in the introductory part, the role played by in the forensic process. The role is based on facts and descriptions recollected and provide aid in shaping the police inquiry. In addition, the evidence that witnesses give out in court has incredibly significant effects on the trial outcome. However, witnesses problem failing to memorize information that they have regarding a certain crime phenomena. There are also several factors leading witnesses not to memorize more information accurately. This report aims to discuss the research in relation techniques and the help they give to witnesses in order to remember more information accurately.
1.2 Hypothetical FoundationThis is an assumption that appear...
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