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1 page/≈275 words
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Social Sciences
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Dissertation Review
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English (U.S.)
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Topic:

obsessive compulsive disorder (Dissertation Review Sample)

Instructions:

The project should include the following pages: Title page (1), Abstract (1), Content (5), Conclusion (1), and References (1). Therefore, you must have at least nine (9) pages in total. Yes, there must be five (5) pages in content only; not including Title page, Abstract, Conclusion, and Reference page. - In addition, it must be typed using APA style. - Research findings from your library work) to support your writing. - It includes at least three (3) academic/scholarly journals (Primary Sources) from journals in Psychology.

source..
Content:
Obsessive compulsive disorder
Student’s Name
University Affiliation
Abstract
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychological condition that results into the urge to overdo something resulting into anxiety and uneasiness. OCD results into a cycle of compulsive obsession with different activities, which in turn interferes with the normal thinking and functioning of individuals. The prevalence of the condition has led to a number of psychological studies, and research to identify some of the mitigation measures. Most OCD patients find solace in performing different rituals to relieve them of the tension and fear. A number of studies have been conducted to highlight the connection that exists between the obsession and the development of compulsive behaviors. For example, the fear of contamination among OCD patients results into regular hand washing, the desire to clean almost everything and bath regularly. Compulsive behaviors among OCD patients consume a huge amount of their time, and this limits their abilities to perform functions. Students with this behavior develop concentration problems in class as their minds become obsessed with the performance of the rituals. This in the long run affects their performance and escalates their fears and anxiety and worsens the situation. Adults with OCD also experience concentration and interaction problems especially at the workplace as they take a lot of time performing the rituals. This reduces their productivity and may result into job loss or demotion. Psychologists have identified a number of causes for the condition, and attempts have been made to correct the condition or manage it by delaying the ritual performance. Such management approaches have sought to develop quicker diagnosis methods that make it possible to identify the condition before it matures. In this paper, the management and diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder will be evaluated to identify the current treatment approaches that have been developed.
Contents
 TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc379925130" Abstract  PAGEREF _Toc379925130 \h 2
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc379925131" Contents  PAGEREF _Toc379925131 \h 3
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc379925132" Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc379925132 \h 4
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc379925133" Epidemiology of obsessive compulsive disorder  PAGEREF _Toc379925133 \h 4
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc379925134" Causes of obsessive compulsive disorder  PAGEREF _Toc379925134 \h 5
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc379925135" Signs and symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder  PAGEREF _Toc379925135 \h 6
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc379925136" Diagnosis, treatment and management of obsessive compulsive disorder  PAGEREF _Toc379925136 \h 7
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc379925137" Conclusion  PAGEREF _Toc379925137 \h 9
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc379925138" References  PAGEREF _Toc379925138 \h 11

Introduction
Human beings are created with an inner conscious that makes them feel like double checking everything they do ensure that it is okay. These results into behaviors such as confirming if the door is locked at night, the fridge has been switched off. Such behaviors are normal in all human beings and are considered as safety measures. However, the compulsive urge to overdo something even after doing it a few minutes ago signals the development of a psychological condition.
Obsessive compulsive disorder results into the feeling of repeatedly doing something as a result of fear and anxiety that grips an individual. Such individuals begin to perform rituals to enable them relieve themselves of anxiety and fear. The thoughts that an individual develops frequently and which results into upsets are known as obsession. The process of controlling the obsession results into the engagement into activities which are driven by an urge to repeat. Despite being seen as voluntary, OCD patients cannot control the urge and the compulsive behaviors. In a number of cases, it has been shown that the rituals control them as they lack control over their behaviors once the obsession occurs (Snider & Swedo, 2000).
Epidemiology of obsessive compulsive disorder
The prevalence of OCD differs based on the age groups in the United States. According to a report released by the world health organization in 2001, OCD was considered to be among the top 20 causes of illness related disabilities. The condition is more in common in individuals aged 15-45 and is responsible for the escalation of mental cases in the United States. The lifetime prevalence of the condition in young children and adolescent in the United States is 1-2%. The prevalence is lower in younger children and has been shown to increase with age. It is currently considered as one of the leading psychiatrist illnesses in children and adolescents (Jenike, 1995).
Causes of obsessive compulsive disorder
A number of psychological studies have been conducted to identify the actual causes of these conditions in individuals in an attempt to develop the most effective management approaches. However, the exact causes have not so far been identified, and this has slowed the management processes. However, some reasons have been proposed to trigger OCD in certain individuals based on the psychological observations made. These causes differ from environmental causes, genetic factors and neurological factors. Different research publications have associated the development of OCD in individuals to the inheritance of genes that result into affected brain development (Veale, 1999).
Though no gene has been identified in these studies, evidence does exist to demonstrate that obsessive compulsive behaviors do run in families and affect members of a family more often. An individual suffering from OCD is highly likely to have kids with the same disorder as compared to those who are not. Some genetic studies have also shown the relationship that exists between OCD and certain diseases found in human beings.
These include the tics disease which is associated with rapid, repeated and involuntary movement of the muscles. OCD patients with tics thus have a compulsive muscle movements and contractions which led to the development of the ritual behaviors. The Tourette syndrome has also been shown to exist in a number of genetically linked OCD patients. This condition is known to cause movements which are repetitive in nature as characterized in a number of OCD cases (Jenike, 1995).
Abnormalities in brain development also increase an individual’s chances of developing obsessive compulsive disorders. Serotonin is an essential brain chemical neurotransmitter to transport information between cells. It also regulates a number of body activities including mood, anxiety and memory. OCD patients have been shown to have reduced levels of serotonin resulting into decreased cell communication and control of body functions.
Some life events have also been shown to increase the possibility of an individual developing obsessive compulsive disorder. Such events include bereavement or emotional breakups, which have been shown to increase the occurrence of the condition especially in patients with family history of OCD. Death in the family trigger fear and the feeling that other people may be harmed in the absence of the dead person. Injection in young children can cause streptococcal bacterial infection. This result into infection-fighting proteins, which react with the brain leading to the development of obsessive compulsive, disorders (Snider & Swedo, 2000).
Signs and symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder
The development of OCD is easy to identify in individuals due to the presence of the obsessive and compulsive behaviors which lead to the performance of rituals. However, the symptoms of the condition may vary from one individual to another based on their environmental causes and medication used. Obsessive thoughts are some of the diagnostic symptoms that psychologist look for especially in a patient suspected to be developing OCD. The repetitive fear of dirt and the continuous concern over body odors, secretion are signs of developing OCD. OCD patients also possess a compelling urge to be neat, orderly and be exact in everything they do (Jenike, 1995).
Their kitchen must be arranged in an order, and the sink cleaned frequently. OCD patients also have a compelling fear of developing bad thoughts. This prevents them from doing something embarrassing before people even in cases when such is not the situation. The use of words is also restrictive in OCD patients as some words may increase embarrassment, affect their thinking and result into the compulsive urge to correct (Veale, 1999).
Apart from thoughts, OCD result into a number of habitual behaviors, which have been used in the diagnosis processes. OCD patients constantly clean their hands, shower regularly and overuse deodorants and antiperspirants to hide their body odors. In the streets, the patients develop a constant urge to check their clothes for dirt check their zippers and are over concerned with nonexistent wardrobe malfunction. The electrical appliances, lights, doors and refrigerators are constantly checked if switched off or closed due to the fear and anxiety. Physical activities such as sit ups and pushups are done frequently by the patients and, this demonstrates the extents of their fears (Jenike, 1995).
As a way of reducing and preventing the occurrence of the obsessive thoughts, OCD patients manifest compulsive behaviors. These have been classified by psychologists as OCD rituals, which are performed to ease the tension and fear among the patients. The symptom has been associated with children at the initial stages of developing the condition. The management of this condition depends on proper diagnosis, which is also affected by the symptoms manifested. It is thus essen...
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