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10 pages/≈2750 words
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APA
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Social Sciences
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Dissertation Review
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English (U.S.)
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The Results of Being a Teenage Mother in America (Dissertation Review Sample)

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literature review of teenage mothers in America

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Content:

The Results of Being a Teenage Mother in America
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Working Outline
I. Abstract
II. Introduction
Problem statement: Teen pregnancy is a social issue highly recognized in the United States and has become a definite problem because of the fact that a teenager is not ready to be a parent based on the limited financial mental and physical stability to take care of a baby. In today’s society, there are a lot of influences, disadvantages and ways to prevent teen pregnancy.
Working thesis: Drawing on the increased cases of teenage pregnancies, the result of being a mother in the U. S are measured by identifying the considerable factors as well as the implication for teenage parenting.
III. Background information on teenage pregnancy in the U.S
Comprehensive historical data
Compared to other nations, the rate of the teenage pregnancy in the U.S has been on the rise for the last two decades (Secura et al., 2014).
Important factors that influence teenage pregnancy
It remains controversial whether the relationship between teen pregnancies and the social environment, or inadequate parental concern is the central factor associated with higher level of the pregnancy in the younger girls (Chen et al., 2007).
Causes of teen pregnancy
Importance of the factors for teenage pregnancies in the U.S
A view of the teenage parenthood in the U.S is that it is a typical calamity to the young women as well as a society problem (Duncan, 2007). The Social Exclusion Report documented by Duncan (2007) states the cause of teenage parenting is low expectations, mixed reactions and ignorance..
IV. Implications of teenage pregnancy to the American society
The trend in the U.S early parenting matters as it has various implications.
Disadvantages to the teenage mothers
Low income
Lack of family support
Medical issues
Education Failure
Low self- esteem
Limitation of Government efforts
V. Recommendations on intervention and prevention efforts
In any case, there necessitates an approach of national interest where the state promotes the use of national policy or campaign to prevent teenage parenting but this can be made practical through useful government and individual efforts.
Government versus individual
Government policies
Effectiveness of individual’s behavior
VI. Conclusion
VII. References
Abstract
Teen pregnancy is a social issue present in the United States and has become a definite problem because of the fact that a teenager is not ready to be a parent based on the limited financial, mental and physical stability to take care of a baby. In today’s society, there are a lot of influences, disadvantages and ways to handle teen pregnancy. The rate of teenage pregnancy among the U.S population has been on the rise for the past two decades. Based on the U.S historical data on factors that influence teenage pregnancy, the declining age at menarche is one of the factors that show a strong influence on teenage pregnancy. The trend in the U.S early parenting matters as it has various implications. Having a baby as a teenager may lead to failure in supporting the child. Young girls who are more likely to drop out of school are subjected to poverty. It is definite that the U.S experiences pressure to formulate policies that would promote the health of the teenage mothers. Drawing on the increased cases and development of teenage pregnancies, the result of being a mother in the U. S is measured.
The Results of Being a Teenage Mother in America
Happiness for every woman is having a baby and raising him or her in the appropriate manner without much pressure. However, it has been identified that the society is facing a challenge of limiting sexual orientation of the adolescents that leads to premature or teenage pregnancies. Adolescence is thus a factor that has contributed to teen pregnancy. A notable influence for this social disadvantage is that teens have been unable to resist the premature romantic/intimate relationships (Upadhya & Ellen, 2011). As a result, there have been increased cases where teenage girls get pregnant in different societies despite significant efforts to teach young girls how to be responsible. Focusing on teenage pregnancies in the United States, one can ascertain some of the most critical factors that lead to early motherhood and hence the result of being a teenage mother. Teen pregnancy is a social issue highly recognized in the United States and has become a definite problem because of the fact that a teenager is not ready to be a parent based on the limited financial, mental and physical stability to take care of a baby. In today’s society, there are a lot of influences, disadvantages and ways to prevent teen pregnancy. Drawing on the increased cases and development of teenage pregnancies, the result of being a mother in the U. S are measured by identifying the considerable factors as well as the implication for teenage parenting.
Historical Data: Teenage Pregnancy in the U.S
Compared to other nations, the rate of the teenage pregnancy in the U.S has been on the rise for the last two decades (Secura et al., 2014). A survey done shows that the pregnancy rate among teenage girls has been high compared to that of women. Secura et al. (2014) indicate that 3 out of 10 teens have a higher chance of getting pregnant before they attain the age of 20. The rates are higher among the African Americans and Hispanic where for every 10, 4 get pregnant among the blacks, as compared to 2 out of 10 white teens (Secura et al., 2014). Kost and Henshaw (2013) report that in 2010, almost 625,000 women under the age of 20 conceived. Out of these, 614,000 pregnancies reported were women aged 15 to 19 years while the remaining 11, 000 aged below 14 years. From this study, it means that the pregnancy rate among the teenagers was 57.4 per 1000 indicating that 6% of teenagers became pregnant in the year 2010. Still, in 2010, the rate of the teenage abortion was high and the figure recorded was 34.4 per 1000 births. However, the number has gone down compared to 1991 that had 61.8 (Kost & Henshaw, 2014). Despite the changes in the pregnancy rates over the years, it remains that the U.S has been experiencing a significant level of teen pregnancies. It is unlikely that the trend will change if the country fails to evaluate the measures to understand the teens regarding the economic, behavioral, and social factors that have contributed to such a trend.
Important Factors that Influence Teenage Pregnancy
It remains controversial whether the relationship between teen pregnancies and the social environment, or inadequate parental concern is the central factor associated with higher levels of the pregnancy in the younger girls (Chen et al., 2007). Based on the U.S historical data on factors that influence teenage pregnancy, the declining age at menarche is one of the factors that show a strong influence on teenage pregnancy. A change in the improved health, as well as the nutrition level, has resulted in the decline in the menarche age.
Another factor that has promoted the increase in early pregnancies for the girls is sexual activity at younger age. According to a behavior study, almost half of the students in the U.S had sexual intercourse before attaining the age of 13 (Chen et al., 2007). Still, the use of contraceptives at a lower rate increased the number of early pregnancies. The youth engaged in premarital sex but failed to use the contraceptives and hence inadequate protection against the cases of pregnancies. Chen et al. (2007) give an example of a study done in 2005 where 51.8% of teenagers used contraception in other countries. However, the case of the U.S shows that the youths were less aware of the effectiveness of the contraceptives, or that the access to them was limited. Although the U.S has restricted cases of unintended pregnancies, there remains the question of the health care, economic, as well as social problems that act as factors contributing to increased pregnancies.
However, the most notable behavioral factor contributing to teen pregnancies is the effect of adolescence. Upadhya and Ellen (2011) define adolescence as “a period of considerable physical, cognitive and emotional development” (538). The explanation of this definition is that adolescence is the likely factor that contributes to increased pressure to the youths and they end up engaging in sex leading to unwanted pregnancies. Further, Upadhya and Ellen explain that the circumstances that lead to a 13 year-old girl and 19 year-old to become pregnant differ. A hypothesis they develop to determine the factors related to the increased social influence is that it is likely that late adolescences have an elevated level of romantic relationships. A majority of the pregnancies are at the later stages because of curiosity to have sex. As a result, the teenagers are exposed to unintended pregnancy. In the U.S, the social influence or disadvantage that impacts on individuals depend on the income, level of education, race, and wealth (Upadhya & Ellen, 2011). An explanation given on racial disparity as a fundamental factor is because of its nature as a social construction. According to Upadhya and Ellen (2011), the disparity in races is a social disadvantage that may contribute to teen pregnancy based on the development of age. The effect of the race disparity is a factor that leads to personal discrimination and thus racial classification.
The economics of marginalization is a significant aspect in explaining the racial factor as an early parenting problem and its consequences. On this issue of marginalization, Kearney and Levine (2012) state that black families in the U.S have a high rate of non-marital childbearing. The d...
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