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3 pages/≈825 words
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Level:
Vancouver
Subject:
Health, Medicine, Nursing
Type:
Dissertation Review
Language:
English (U.S.)
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Topic:

Mucosal Integity and Immunity (Dissertation Review Sample)

Instructions:

The task was about writing on the mucosal integrity and immunity. Specifically, the customer wanted a mention on important aspects in relation to mucosal immunity and integrity including normal microflora, the essential regulation integrity tolerance and function(with reference to the GIT), the extracellular components of the mucosal barrier, the cellular components of the mucosal barrier and finally the mucosal immunity.

source..
Content:

Gut leakage
Mucosal Integrity and Immunity
Name, Credentials
Program
Institution
Name of Faculty Advisor
Project Timeline
Mucosal immunity and integrity
The mucosal surfaces, particularly the gastrointestinal tract, are constantly exposed to microbes ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.1146/annurev-immunol-031210-101317", "ISBN" : "1545-3278 (Electronic)\\n0732-0582 (Linking)", "ISSN" : "0732-0582", "PMID" : "21219173", "abstract" : "Mucosal surfaces are colonized by large communities of commensal bacteria and represent the primary site of entry for pathogenic agents. To prevent microbial intrusion, mucosal B cells release large amounts of immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules through multiple follicular and extrafollicular pathways. IgA is the most abundant antibody isotype in mucosal secretions and owes its success in frontline immunity to its ability to undergo transcytosis across epithelial cells. In addition to translocating IgA onto the mucosal surface, epithelial cells educate the mucosal immune system as to the composition of the local microbiota and instruct B cells to initiate IgA responses that generate immune protection while preserving immune homeostasis. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the cellular interactions and signaling pathways governing IgA production at mucosal surfaces and discuss new findings on the regulation and function of mucosal IgD, the most enigmatic isotype of our mucosal antibody repertoire.", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Cerutti", "given" : "Andrea", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Chen", "given" : "Kang", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Chorny", "given" : "Alejo", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "Annual review of immunology", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2011" ] ] }, "page" : "273-293", "title" : "Immunoglobulin responses at the mucosal interface.", "type" : "article-journal", "volume" : "29" }, "uris" : [ "/documents/?uuid=3d908c0b-96a0-44c7-a949-7e73d51cc6b4" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "formattedCitation" : "(1)", "plainTextFormattedCitation" : "(1)" }, "properties" : { "noteIndex" : 0 }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }(1). However, homeostasis is reinstated by maintaining responsiveness to commensal bacteria while mounting a protective response to pathogenic and other invading microorganisms ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.1016/j.jaci.2007.10.023", "ISBN" : "1097-6825 (Electronic)", "ISSN" : "00916749", "PMID" : "18241686", "abstract" : "Mucosal surfaces constitute a large host-environmental interface that must be protected from pathogenic organisms. The mucosal immune system has evolved as a distinct immune organ functioning independently from its systemic counterpart. The mucosal immune system has the difficult task of mounting protective responses to invading microorganisms while maintaining a state of nonresponsiveness to commensal bacteria and food antigens. The system has unique cellular components and functional aspects that permit it to carry out this dual role. \u00a9 2008 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Wershil", "given" : "Barry K.", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Furuta", "given" : "Glenn T.", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issue" : "2 SUPPL. 2", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2008" ] ] }, "title" : "4. Gastrointestinal mucosal immunity", "type" : "article-journal", "volume" : "121" }, "uris" : [ "/documents/?uuid=3c7435a2-b089-4fa7-a48a-c794c115cea8" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "formattedCitation" : "(2)", "plainTextFormattedCitation" : "(2)", "previouslyFormattedCitation" : "(1)" }, "properties" : { "noteIndex" : 0 }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }(2). This is made possible because of several mechanisms that constitute both intrinsic and extrinsic barriers against microbes. While the intrinsic is composed of epithelial cells that line the digestive tube, the extrinsic consist of influences that affect epithelial cells, though are not physically part of epithelium, but still maintain the barrier function. The barrier, therefore, has to be maintained so as to address the role of leaky gut in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.1038/ncpgasthep0259", "ISBN" : "1743-4378", "ISSN" : "1743-4378", "PMID" : "16265432", "abstract" : "The primary functions of the gastrointestinal tract have traditionally been perceived to be limited to the digestion and absorption of nutrients and electrolytes, and to water homeostasis. A more attentive analysis of the anatomic and functional arrangement of the gastrointestinal tract, however, suggests that another extremely important function of this organ is its ability to regulate the trafficking of macromolecules between the environment and the host through a barrier mechanism. Together with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the neuroendocrine network, the intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junctions, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to nonself-antigens. When the finely tuned trafficking of macromolecules is dysregulated in genetically susceptible individuals, both intestinal and extraintestinal autoimmune disorders can occur. This new paradigm subverts traditional theories underlying the development of autoimmunity, which are based on molecular mimicry and/or the bystander effect, and suggests that the autoimmune process can be arrested if the interplay between genes and environmental triggers is prevented by re-establishing intestinal barrier function. Understanding the role of the intestinal barrier in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disease is an area of translational research that encompasses many fields and is currently receiving a great deal of attention. This review is timely given the increased interest in the role of a 'leaky gut' in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases and the advent of novel treatment strategies, such as the use of probiotics.", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Fasano", "given" : "Alessio", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Shea-Donohue", "given" : "Terez", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "Nature clinical practice. Gastroenterology & hepatology", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issue" : "9", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2005" ] ] }, "page" : "416-422", "title" : "Mechanisms of disease: the role of intestinal barrier function in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases.", "type" : "article-journal", "volume" : "2" }, "uris" : [ "/documents/?uuid=c04e426f-435d-4861-9f53-fb62d30674fd" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "formattedCitation" : "(3)", "plainTextFormattedCitation" : "(3)", "previouslyFormattedCitation" : "(2)" }, "properties" : { "noteIndex" : 0 }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }(3).
Most of the higher organisms’ mucosal surfaces consist of a diverse range of microbiota including viruses, protozoa, and fungi. The normal human ‘gut’ microbiota is however majorly composed of anaerobic bacteria ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.1038/nrmicro2974", "ISSN" : "1740-1534", "PMID" : "23435359", "abstract" : "Establishing and maintaining beneficial interactions between the host and its associated microbiota are key requirements for host health. Although the gut microbiota has previously been studied in the context of inflammatory diseases, it has recently become clear that this microbial community has a beneficial role during normal homeostasis, modulating the host's immune system as well as influencing host development and physiology, including organ development and morphogenesis, and host metabolism. The underlying molecular mechanisms of host-microorganism interactions remain largely unknown, but recent studies have begun to identify the key signalling pathways of the cross-species homeostatic regulation between the gut microbiota and its host.", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Sommer", "given" : "Felix", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" }, { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "B\u00e4ckhed", "given" : "Fredrik", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "Nature reviews. Microbiology", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issue" : "4", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2013", "4" ] ] }, "page" : "227-38", "publisher" : "Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.", "title" : "The gut microbiota--masters of host development and physiology.", "title-short" : "Nat Rev Micro", "type" : "article-journal", "volume" : "11" }, "uris" : [ "/documents/?uuid=f2b7f8e4-63fb-4f38-bf9f-1b03ef5da397" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "formattedCitation" : "(4)", "plainTextFormattedCitation" : "(4)", "previouslyFormattedCitation" : "(3)" }, "properties" : { "noteIndex" : 0 }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }(4). These bacteria serve to facilitate metabolism of indigestible polysaccharides, play...
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  • Mucosal Integity and Immunity
    Description: The mucosal surfaces, particularly the gastrointestinal tract, are constantly exposed to microbes...
    3 pages/≈825 words| No Sources | Vancouver | Health, Medicine, Nursing | Dissertation Review |
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