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Accounting, Finance, SPSS
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Relaxation Techniques and How They Help In Witnesses Recall (Dissertation Sample)

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Relaxation Techniques and How They Help In Witnesses Recall
Students Name
Supervisor
Acknowledgements
Many thanks to my supervisor for the endless help she provided throughout this study and the support she gave to me. Many thanks also go to Greenwich University Library because this work would not have been probable without all the research that was made available to me.
Abstract
Testimony from wittiness is one of the widely and most influential methods used in court. It is also note able that witnesses recall preparation should be based on helping witnesses to be able to present a message that is clear and effective. Thus, Witness recall and preparation are two important aspects that require great concern from all concerned parties.
The specific objective of this research will be to show that relaxation techniques can help memory recall among crime witnesses. In this study the hypothetical foundation will be made because it will help giving more support to the topic under study. The hypothesis in this case will be as follows. HO= People who practice relaxation techniques maybe can recall more easily memories as witnesses in a crime scene. HA= People who practice relaxation techniques may be can not recall more easily memories as witnesses in a crime. 
False convictions remain a key issue in courts due to lack of clear or relevant evidence from crime witnesses. The study will analyse a number of relaxation techniques and try to examine the degree to which they affect the memory recall of a witness
Table of Contents
 TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243593" Relaxation Techniques and How They Help In Witnesses Recall  PAGEREF _Toc387243593 \h 1
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243594" Students Name  PAGEREF _Toc387243594 \h 1
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243595" Acknowledgements  PAGEREF _Toc387243595 \h 2
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243596" Abstract  PAGEREF _Toc387243596 \h 3
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243597" Table of Contents  PAGEREF _Toc387243597 \h 3
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243598" Chapter1  PAGEREF _Toc387243598 \h 6
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243599" 1.2 Hypothetical Foundation  PAGEREF _Toc387243599 \h 9
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243600" Chapter 2: Literature Review  PAGEREF _Toc387243600 \h 10
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243602" 2.1 Relaxation techniques  PAGEREF _Toc387243602 \h 12
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243603" 2.2 Eye closure  PAGEREF _Toc387243603 \h 12
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243604" 2.3 Cognitive interviews  PAGEREF _Toc387243604 \h 13
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243605" 2.4 Meditation  PAGEREF _Toc387243605 \h 14
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243606" 2.5 Self hypnosis  PAGEREF _Toc387243606 \h 16
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243607" 2.6 Self efficacy approach  PAGEREF _Toc387243607 \h 17
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243608" 2.6.1 Self efficacy sources  PAGEREF _Toc387243608 \h 18
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243609" Chapter 3: Theoretical Perspectives  PAGEREF _Toc387243609 \h 20
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243610"  3.1 ABC relaxation theory  PAGEREF _Toc387243610 \h 20
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243611" 3.1.1 R states, R altitude, and R beliefs  PAGEREF _Toc387243611 \h 21
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243612" 3.2 ABC relaxation theory View  PAGEREF _Toc387243612 \h 22
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243613" 3.3 Confidence theories  PAGEREF _Toc387243613 \h 23
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243614" Chapter 4  PAGEREF _Toc387243614 \h 24
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243615" 4.1 Informal process  PAGEREF _Toc387243615 \h 24
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243616" 4.1.1 Cognitive dialogue  PAGEREF _Toc387243616 \h 25
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243617" 4.1.2 Memory Recuperation  PAGEREF _Toc387243617 \h 26
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243618" 4.1.3 Applied Techniques  PAGEREF _Toc387243618 \h 26
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243619" 4.1.4 Progressive Muscle Relaxation  PAGEREF _Toc387243619 \h 27
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243620" 4.1.5 Biofeedback  PAGEREF _Toc387243620 \h 27
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243621" 4.1.6 Brainwaves  PAGEREF _Toc387243621 \h 28
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243622" 4.1.7 Skin conductance  PAGEREF _Toc387243622 \h 29
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243623" 4.1.8 Autogenic Training  PAGEREF _Toc387243623 \h 29
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243624" 4.1.9 Deep breathing  PAGEREF _Toc387243624 \h 30
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243626" 4.1.10 Self-hypnosis  PAGEREF _Toc387243626 \h 30
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243627" 4.1.11 Visualization:  PAGEREF _Toc387243627 \h 31
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243628" Chapter 5: Data collection Methods  PAGEREF _Toc387243628 \h 32
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243629" 5.1The interpretive research approach  PAGEREF _Toc387243629 \h 33
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243630" 5.2 Research Methodology  PAGEREF _Toc387243630 \h 34
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243631" 5.3 Sample  PAGEREF _Toc387243631 \h 35
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243632" 5.4 Instrumentation  PAGEREF _Toc387243632 \h 36
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243633" 5.5 Data Collection  PAGEREF _Toc387243633 \h 36
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243634" 5.6 Data Analysis  PAGEREF _Toc387243634 \h 36
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243635" Chapter 6: Results, Discussion and Conclusion,  PAGEREF _Toc387243635 \h 37
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243636" 6.1 Demographic analysis  PAGEREF _Toc387243636 \h 40
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243637" 6.2 Criminal scene  PAGEREF _Toc387243637 \h 41
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243638" 6.2.1 Questions before the criminal scene  PAGEREF _Toc387243638 \h 42
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243639" 6.2.2 Questions during the crime scene  PAGEREF _Toc387243639 \h 44
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243640" CHAPTER 7: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION  PAGEREF _Toc387243640 \h 48
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243641" 7.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc387243641 \h 48
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243642" 7.2 Objective summary: relaxation techniques can help in memory recall among witnesses  PAGEREF _Toc387243642 \h 48
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243643" 7.3 Recommendations  PAGEREF _Toc387243643 \h 49
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243644" 7.4 Limitations of the study  PAGEREF _Toc387243644 \h 49
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243645" 7.5 Suggestions for further research  PAGEREF _Toc387243645 \h 50
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243646" 7.6 Conclusion  PAGEREF _Toc387243646 \h 50

Chapter1 1.0 Introduction
Testimony from wittiness is one of the widely and most influential methods used in court. In this case witness preparation is a common practice for both the attorneys and trial consultants in bolstering witness’s capability to testify. For example, in the year 2009 a clarification in regard a witness capability to testify was clearly made. This research managed to note that witnesses recall preparation should be based on helping witnesses to be able to present a message that is clear and effective. Again Neal report cites clearly that the American Bar Association maintains that preparation of witnesses can not incorporate the policies to mislead the court. As a result of preparation and testimony usage, physiological prose has managed to proliferate witnesses’ related research. Some of this research includes examination of the impacts of biased information on eye witness confidence and accuracy. This is a term that has come to be referred to as misinformation.
An eyewitness plays a very significant role in the forensic process. From the outset perspective the data that they are able to collect as well as the description that these witnesses provide has a great role in shaping the police inquiries. At the end of this process the provided testimonies in the court of law plays a big role or have significant effects on the trial outcome. This ability of eye wittiness to provide accurate account of the witnessed event has been an area of interest for psychologist. Therefore, they have been researching basing their interest on what they have observed over a centaury, following the fact that a there is a vast of these majority research that has been conducted in the 70’s. As a result of these researches a lot has been learnt of the ways which witnesses can be mistaken, or mislead into terror, however, very little has been discovered on ways to help them remember the observed information well.
It is important to note that the extent to which a witness can be able to provide detailed information about an observed past event is driven by both the memory quality and their willingness to respond to the questions asked. Questions asked to the witnesses are designed in way that the remembered information demonstrates their effectiveness is higher than just the response bias, but it’s a constitution of improved memory. There is several relaxation techniques applied such as closing of eyes. There are those that help them to give les incorrect information while others are not. The current paper bucks this trend, and discusses research into helping witnesses to remember more details, more accurately. 1.1 Background statement
The forensic practice, for example, requires any witnesses recall only the truth and the whole truth and not anything else, but the truth. In the case of eye witness maximum information is required to be recalled and it is expected to be true with the minimum amount of error. One thing to note with the human memory as far as the issues of information recall is concerned is that, it is imperfect, reconstructive, and vulnerable to pressure and objective oriented establishment. It is not objective to take such intention in this case or ground cover. However, is crucial to take it for granted the memory fallibility, and none the less ask how an interviewer can and a complaint witness optimize their recall. This indicates that there are two interrelated problem that needs to be overcome.
Witness recall and preparation are two important aspects that require great concern from all concerned parties. These two aspects also call s for objective measures that are empirically established to measure the credibility of witness given out. According to the credibility witness scale, witness credibility is conceptualized as a four factor raise which comprises of confidence, trustworthiness, knowledge, and likeability. As a result of this measure utility has been evident more so in expert witness study. What is lacking so far is a theoretical perspective that is empirically derived as a valid measure of witness ability to recall and testify. Such a scale development contains both applied and theoretical significance. To demonstrate conceptual and psychometric properties directed to the goal of assessing cognitive and behavioral perceptions of witnesses about testifying is a big challenge. These established areas once addressed and assessed effectively they can aid in identifying certain testimony components’ to be improved through witness preparation with will result in an effective recall. This study can also draw from self efficacy literature making it simple to define these phenomena’s and be able to desperate constructs and be able to get the implication that gives room for juror perceptions, and formulate hypotheses for the present study. 
As indentified in the introductory part, the role played by in the forensic process. The role is based on facts and descriptions recollected and provide aid in shaping the police inquiry. In addition, the evidence that witnesses give out in court has incredibly significant effects on the trial outcome. However, witnesses problem failing to memorize information that they have regarding a certain crime phenomena. There are also several factors leading witnesses not to memorize more information accurately. This report aims to discuss the research in relation techniques and the help they give to witnesses in order to remember more information accurately.
1.2 Hypothetical Foundation
This is an assumption that appears to elucidate a collection of phenomena and it is usually sophisticated as a basis for auxiliary investigation. There are two types of hypothetical foundations that is null and alternative hypothesis. In the case of null hypothesis a prediction to the absence of two related variables is made, for example there is no relationship practice relaxation techniques and easy recall among the crime witnesses.
The other type is the alternative hypothesis, this cites an actual expectation for example, and practice of relaxation techniques increases the chances of easy recall among crime witnesses
The hypothetical foundation is the initial building block in the scientific methods applied in a research. This can be termed as educated guesses which as on prior observation and knowledge as a cause of particular phenomena. Hypothesis is an inkling idea that can or may result into a theory forming the following step in scientific method. Hypothesis basic idea is based on the fact that there is no outcome that is pre-determined. Therefore, for a hypothesis to be regarded as scientific it has to a phenomena that can be supported or refuted in the course of a careful crafted observation or experimentation.
In this study the hypothetical foundation is important because it will help to give more support to the topic under study. The hypothesis in this case will be as follows.
HO= People who practice relaxation techniques maybe can recall more easily memories as witnesses in a crime scene. 
HA= People who practice relaxation techniques may be can not recall more easily memories as witnesses in a crime
Chapter 2: Literature Review
There are several relaxation techniques that have been developed or practiced as ways of preparing witness memory to the task of giving evidence in regard to a certain crime some of these techniques includes eye closure, exponential interviews, forms of meditation, guided meditation, self hypnosis, among others. One this to note with these techniques is that they are all aimed at helping a witness memory to relax. After a crime has occurred and it happens to be that there were some eye witness they are asked by the police or the investigation body about what they witnessed. As it is to identifications the extent or the information an eye witness remembers greatly depends on the estimator and the variables of the system.
Some of the estimator variables evident and which of relevance to an eyewitness include; factors such as whether a witness was under the influence of any drug or may be stressed at the time of the witnessed event. It is a common issue for a witness to be influenced by drugs when the witnesses a crime (Rose, & Golf).As a result, they happen to recall only a substantial part of the whole event in details. Stress effects on an eye witness are a bit complicated although the moderate stress level in the time of witnessed crime events may be a memory enhancement for the most important part of the event. Another thing to note with stress aspects is that they generally impair event memory.
The other important variable in this case is the system variables, some of these variables include, the duration of time between the event of the crime and the police interview. This is a factor because there is a likelihood of relevant information being forgotten over time. The important part of it is that the interview for the eyewitness should be conducted immediately after the crime. Moreover, to make sure that the witness testimony given is accurate the investigation interview should be based on only open ended questions an altogether suggestive question should be avoided.
In regard to the above analysis, it is clear that a witness memory is the major factor to take note and to prepare in order to enhance the events recall process. In order to achieve that there are several relaxation techniques that can be applied in order to try and enhance the process of memory recall. Again this forms the basis of this study to try and define how these relaxation techniques can help a witness memory. Apart from these techniques there a number of theories that have been developed in link to this area; some of the evident theories include self efficacy theory, which tries to define aspects such as wittiness self efficacy, construction of validity aspects among others ( Smith). Again these theories will be discussed in more in this literature review.
2.1 Relaxation techniques
The idiom relaxation can be applied in the description of recreations revisit to equilibrium. An equilibrium system is a subjection to an exterior perturbation, for example a temperature change (Muir, Alice). The whole idea behind these techniques is to enable a witness’s relax and his or her memory becomes set for the intended interview, these techniques are as discussed below.
2.2 Eye closure
This is a hypnosis aspect eye-closure. Researchers under this area have found out that benefit of any memory can be attributed to eye closure compared to hypnotic instructions. According to a research conducted to define the effects of eye closure on memory recall, the research showed that those who answered the questions asked while they closed their eyes managed to recall 47 % of the questions asked while those who had their eyes open managed to recall only low percentage of the questions (Sutcliffe, Jenny). The aim of this research was to explore whether eye closure relaxation technique has benefits on the memory recall on mundane events that occur only once.
 It is important to conclude that eye closure helps in recall of both auditory and visual details in suppress of incorrect details. This also implies that eye closure has a direct effect on how good a witness is able to access their memory. The technique is also apparent when witnesses have a chance of giving their own account on what they had observed and on directly answered questions. One important with this technique is that it does not require any special training neither does it complicate the interviewing process. This is a clear proof that witnesses are able to remember more details of a past event once instructed to close their eyes. This move enables the memory to relax and they are able to recall detailed information on a certain crime that they witnessed taking place. However, it is important to note that witnesses are not always comfy with this instruction, may be because it contravenes the community norms or witnesses may feel vulnerable when they have their eyes closed. 
The whole fact behind this technique is that eye- closure manages to reduce environmental distraction thus managing to enhance increased concentration of the whole memory creation process. Crime events are examples of complex events that occur only once and memory repossession in this case is an effortful process which manages to unfold over an extended period of time. Therefore, once this process is disrupted chances of participants being able to re- create the memory satisfactorily for the witnessed events are reduced and they are unable to provide details of the event.

source..
Content:

Relaxation Techniques and How They Help In Witnesses Recall
Students Name
Supervisor
Acknowledgements
Many thanks to my supervisor for the endless help she provided throughout this study and the support she gave to me. Many thanks also go to Greenwich University Library because this work would not have been probable without all the research that was made available to me.
Abstract
Testimony from wittiness is one of the widely and most influential methods used in court. It is also note able that witnesses recall preparation should be based on helping witnesses to be able to present a message that is clear and effective. Thus, Witness recall and preparation are two important aspects that require great concern from all concerned parties.
The specific objective of this research will be to show that relaxation techniques can help memory recall among crime witnesses. In this study the hypothetical foundation will be made because it will help giving more support to the topic under study. The hypothesis in this case will be as follows. HO= People who practice relaxation techniques maybe can recall more easily memories as witnesses in a crime scene. HA= People who practice relaxation techniques may be can not recall more easily memories as witnesses in a crime.
False convictions remain a key issue in courts due to lack of clear or relevant evidence from crime witnesses. The study will analyse a number of relaxation techniques and try to examine the degree to which they affect the memory recall of a witness
Table of Contents
 TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243593" Relaxation Techniques and How They Help In Witnesses Recall  PAGEREF _Toc387243593 \h 1
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243594" Students Name  PAGEREF _Toc387243594 \h 1
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243595" Acknowledgements  PAGEREF _Toc387243595 \h 2
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243596" Abstract  PAGEREF _Toc387243596 \h 3
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243597" Table of Contents  PAGEREF _Toc387243597 \h 3
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243598" Chapter1  PAGEREF _Toc387243598 \h 6
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243599" 1.2 Hypothetical Foundation  PAGEREF _Toc387243599 \h 9
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243600" Chapter 2: Literature Review  PAGEREF _Toc387243600 \h 10
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243602" 2.1 Relaxation techniques  PAGEREF _Toc387243602 \h 12
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243603" 2.2 Eye closure  PAGEREF _Toc387243603 \h 12
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243604" 2.3 Cognitive interviews  PAGEREF _Toc387243604 \h 13
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243605" 2.4 Meditation  PAGEREF _Toc387243605 \h 14
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243606" 2.5 Self hypnosis  PAGEREF _Toc387243606 \h 16
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243607" 2.6 Self efficacy approach  PAGEREF _Toc387243607 \h 17
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243608" 2.6.1 Self efficacy sources  PAGEREF _Toc387243608 \h 18
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243609" Chapter 3: Theoretical Perspectives  PAGEREF _Toc387243609 \h 20
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243610"  3.1 ABC relaxation theory  PAGEREF _Toc387243610 \h 20
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243611" 3.1.1 R states, R altitude, and R beliefs  PAGEREF _Toc387243611 \h 21
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243612" 3.2 ABC relaxation theory View  PAGEREF _Toc387243612 \h 22
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243613" 3.3 Confidence theories  PAGEREF _Toc387243613 \h 23
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243614" Chapter 4  PAGEREF _Toc387243614 \h 24
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243615" 4.1 Informal process  PAGEREF _Toc387243615 \h 24
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243616" 4.1.1 Cognitive dialogue  PAGEREF _Toc387243616 \h 25
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243617" 4.1.2 Memory Recuperation  PAGEREF _Toc387243617 \h 26
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243618" 4.1.3 Applied Techniques  PAGEREF _Toc387243618 \h 26
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243619" 4.1.4 Progressive Muscle Relaxation  PAGEREF _Toc387243619 \h 27
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243620" 4.1.5 Biofeedback  PAGEREF _Toc387243620 \h 27
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243621" 4.1.6 Brainwaves  PAGEREF _Toc387243621 \h 28
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243622" 4.1.7 Skin conductance  PAGEREF _Toc387243622 \h 29
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243623" 4.1.8 Autogenic Training  PAGEREF _Toc387243623 \h 29
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243624" 4.1.9 Deep breathing  PAGEREF _Toc387243624 \h 30
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243626" 4.1.10 Self-hypnosis  PAGEREF _Toc387243626 \h 30
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243627" 4.1.11 Visualization:  PAGEREF _Toc387243627 \h 31
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243628" Chapter 5: Data collection Methods  PAGEREF _Toc387243628 \h 32
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243629" 5.1The interpretive research approach  PAGEREF _Toc387243629 \h 33
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243630" 5.2 Research Methodology  PAGEREF _Toc387243630 \h 34
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243631" 5.3 Sample  PAGEREF _Toc387243631 \h 35
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243632" 5.4 Instrumentation  PAGEREF _Toc387243632 \h 36
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243633" 5.5 Data Collection  PAGEREF _Toc387243633 \h 36
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243634" 5.6 Data Analysis  PAGEREF _Toc387243634 \h 36
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243635" Chapter 6: Results, Discussion and Conclusion,  PAGEREF _Toc387243635 \h 37
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243636" 6.1 Demographic analysis  PAGEREF _Toc387243636 \h 40
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243637" 6.2 Criminal scene  PAGEREF _Toc387243637 \h 41
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243638" 6.2.1 Questions before the criminal scene  PAGEREF _Toc387243638 \h 42
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243639" 6.2.2 Questions during the crime scene  PAGEREF _Toc387243639 \h 44
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243640" CHAPTER 7: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION  PAGEREF _Toc387243640 \h 48
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243641" 7.1 Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc387243641 \h 48
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243642" 7.2 Objective summary: relaxation techniques can help in memory recall among witnesses  PAGEREF _Toc387243642 \h 48
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243643" 7.3 Recommendations  PAGEREF _Toc387243643 \h 49
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243644" 7.4 Limitations of the study  PAGEREF _Toc387243644 \h 49
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243645" 7.5 Suggestions for further research  PAGEREF _Toc387243645 \h 50
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc387243646" 7.6 Conclusion  PAGEREF _Toc387243646 \h 50

Chapter1 1.0 Introduction
Testimony from wittiness is one of the widely and most influential methods used in court. In this case witness preparation is a common practice for both the attorneys and trial consultants in bolstering witness’s capability to testify. For example, in the year 2009 a clarification in regard a witness capability to testify was clearly made. This research managed to note that witnesses recall preparation should be based on helping witnesses to be able to present a message that is clear and effective. Again Neal report cites clearly that the American Bar Association maintains that preparation of witnesses can not incorporate the policies to mislead the court. As a result of preparation and testimony usage, physiological prose has managed to proliferate witnesses’ related research. Some of this research includes examination of the impacts of biased information on eye witness confidence and accuracy. This is a term that has come to be referred to as misinformation.
An eyewitness plays a very significant role in the forensic process. From the outset perspective the data that they are able to collect as well as the description that these witnesses provide has a great role in shaping the police inquiries. At the end of this process the provided testimonies in the court of law plays a big role or have significant effects on the trial outcome. This ability of eye wittiness to provide accurate account of the witnessed event has been an area of interest for psychologist. Therefore, they have been researching basing their interest on what they have observed over a centaury, following the fact that a there is a vast of these majority research that has been conducted in the 70’s. As a result of these researches a lot has been learnt of the ways which witnesses can be mistaken, or mislead into terror, however, very little has been discovered on ways to help them remember the observed information well.
It is important to note that the extent to which a witness can be able to provide detailed information about an observed past event is driven by both the memory quality and their willingness to respond to the questions asked. Questions asked to the witnesses are designed in way that the remembered information demonstrates their effectiveness is higher than just the response bias, but it’s a constitution of improved memory. There is several relaxation techniques applied such as closing of eyes. There are those that help them to give les incorrect information while others are not. The current paper bucks this trend, and discusses research into helping witnesses to remember more details, more accurately. 1.1 Background statement
The forensic practice, for example, requires any witnesses recall only the truth and the whole truth and not anything else, but the truth. In the case of eye witness maximum information is required to be recalled and it is expected to be true with the minimum amount of error. One thing to note with the human memory as far as the issues of information recall is concerned is that, it is imperfect, reconstructive, and vulnerable to pressure and objective oriented establishment. It is not objective to take such intention in this case or ground cover. However, is crucial to take it for granted the memory fallibility, and none the less ask how an interviewer ...
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