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Describe Climate Change and Bio-fuel Production Create (Dissertation Sample)


The task was to carry out a research on the given topic '
Climate Change and Bio-fuel Production Create
Agricultural Commodity Price Variability: Impact on Agriculture and Rural Development of Africa and Possible Alternative Strategies' and write a comprehensive dissertation.This paper addresses the topic highlighting the various aspects examined.


Climate Change and Bio-fuel Production Create
Agricultural Commodity Price Variability: Impact on Agriculture and Rural Development of Africa and Possible Alternative Strategies
July 2011
The concept of climate change has been on overwhelming challenge on the global platform in the 21st century. This phenomenon leads to change in average weather conditions as well as the distribution of events in the environment. One of the key elements of climate change to the environment is the epidemic of global warming. The main causes of global warming have been associated with destruction of ozone layer through the increased use of fossil fuel. In the 21st century, the effects of climate change and more specifically the menace of global warming are highly felt. These have triggered nearly all human activities and more importantly agriculture. The concern on global warming and issue of ozone layer destruction has also triggered the adoption of renewable energy. The main alternative renewable energy in reference to fossil fuel is the use of bio-fuels. These include bio-diesel, ethanol, methanol, and biogas. Nevertheless, the production of these bio-fuels has not come singly, whereby they have had immense impacts on agriculture, food production and sustainable rural development. Many research studies in this topic have been aimed at stabling the main causes of climate change as well as its impacts on different sector. The research studies have also been expanded to the significance of adopting bio-fuels in reference to fossil fuels. Nevertheless, specific concerns regarding the impacts of climate change and the adoption of bio-fuels on agriculture, rural development, and food production have not been undertaken.
This dissertation has adequately explored the implications of climate change and the production of bio-fuels on food production as well as on rural development in third world countries. The attention of the study has been on Africa due to the high serious crisis facing the agricultural sector in the continent. The crisis in agriculture in Africa has been demonstrated by the high levels of price variability of food commodities, food insecurity, and scarcity of food commodities. The continent has been identified as the most insecure in terms of food sufficiency. This has been demonstrated by FAO, where out of 34 countries with food insecurity, 33 come from Africa. Haiti is the only country with food insecurity alongside the 33 African nations. The food situation in the country has for the last 3 decades been unacceptable thus the need for urgent concern.
The main objective of the dissertation is to answer the central question concerning the impacts of bio-fuel production and climate change on agriculture, sustainable rural development and food production in Africa. Africa has been the worse hit by this phenomenon, thus the need for greater attention. In order to answer the research questions, both secondary and primary data have been adopted, whereby a mixed methodology has been applied. This included both qualitative and quantitative research approach. In order to ensure efficiency, the focus was directed on Nigeria and Niger as the major areas of concern. Questionnaires were the main source of primary data, whereby 100 Agribusiness Companies, 100 farmers’ associations, 200 agricultural commodity traders, and 600 Individual farmers were involved in the study. These participants were drawn on half from Niger and half from Nigeria. Secondary data included a comprehensive analysis of relevant literature on climate change and bio-fuel production on Africa’s agriculture and rural development.
The dissertation hereby explains that, climate change and production of bio-fuel are the main challenges of agriculture and food production in African nations. With increased production of bio-diesel and ethanol, the process of food production has been jeopardized. The production of bio-diesel has been noted to have immense effects on food production. It has been noted that many farmers have abandoned food crop farming to the production of feedstock. The total land under the production of food crops has been identified to face drastic decline. Labor, resources and technical know how which was previously used in the production of food crops has been diverted the production of bio-fuels. The calamity of climate change has been identified to threaten agriculture and food production in Africa. In reference to literature, climate change has been noted to create unfavorable conditions and environment for undertaking agriculture. This is attributed to global warming which is enhancing dissertation as well as the prolonging of drought. Based on these phenomenons, the amount of land under agriculture is diminishing day by day. With reference to these challenges, the dissertation has also established sustainable solutions t the crisis.
Key words: Agriculture, Agricultural systems, Agricultural trade, Food production, Food security, Rural development, Sustainable rural development ,Price variability, Commodity crisis, Climate change, Bio-fuel production
Thesis Contribution to Knowledge
The dissertation is aimed at evaluating the impacts of climate change on food production, agriculture and rural development in Africa. The impacts of bio-fuel production on agriculture and rural development in Africa have also been given substantial attention. The relationship between climate change and bio-fuel production on food price variability has also been adequately addressed. These phenomenons have been very profound in Africa, whereby solutions to the problem are not only important but inevitable for the continent and the globe as a whole. The research study has put much emphasis on the problem of food insecurity in Africa. In this case, the relationship between climate change and bio-fuel production in relation to food insecurity has also been addressed. A point worth of consideration is that Africa has been the main area of concern. In this case, the attention on Niger and Nigeria has been undertaken in making the study more efficient. The relationship between systems of agriculture in Africa and those adopted in developed nations has been established. In addition, the nature of agricultural commodity markets and trade has been evaluated in the research study. This has helped in analyzing the phenomenon of price variability and the driving forces in agricultural production. A mixed methodology was adopted, whereby participants from Nigeria and Niger were incorporated in the study. A total of 1000 participants were involved in the study, which included agribusiness companies, agricultural associations, individual farmers and agricultural commodity traders. The major contributions of the thesis to knowledge are as follows.
The data analysis established that climate change has immense impacts on agriculture as a result of development of unfavorable conditions. This is attributed by global warming which leads to overwhelmingly high temperatures. Based on the study, climate change has been revealed to adversely affect agriculture in Africa, through reduction of arable land and crop failure. The arable land has been decreased by over 30%, thus leading to decline in food production. Crop failure has also been rampant as a result of global warming, thus contributing to food insecurity. Study has also demonstrated that climate change has led to an increase in pests and diseases affecting crops and animals. A point worth of consideration is that there was little contradiction between primary data and secondary analysis. This added to the credibility of these findings.
The research established that production of bio-fuel in Africa led to significant decline in agriculturally potential land. Based on the study, production of bio-fuel production is conducted without proper planning thus leading to unnecessary competition for the arable land. This decline in cultivable land leads to substantial reduction in food production hence inducing food insecurity. Massive diversion of human and financial resources from food production to bio-fuel production has been witnessed in Africa. This has been identified as a vital element leading to food shortage in the continent for the last two decades. The study, depicted that the level of government intervention in bio-fuel production was not appealing thus worsening the situation.
The study has also provided credible information concerning agricultural systems in Africa. This has been done in reference to global agricultural systems. The results of the research study have demonstrated that the poor farming systems are adopted in Africa. The research has established a strong relationship between the farming systems adopted in Africa and the low levels of agricultural output. In response to this situation, the need for improving the agricultural systems has been identified.
The results of the research study have showed that farmers in Africa need to focus on improved seeds and better farming systems. This is in relation to the high levels of harsh conditions, thus deserving higher crops and animal species with higher adaptability to the harsh conditions.
The study has also indicated that there exists a strong interdependence between crude oil markets and food commodity markets. Volatility of crude oil markets has been identified to have strong effect on food price variability. This has been very evident in the survey and interviews on the focus groups. Increase in crude oil prices has been identified to have strong influence on food prices as a result of high production costs as well as increased costs of farm inputs. The research has also indicated that volatility in crude oil has influenced the production of bio-fuels thus enhancing food shortage.
The results have depicted that government support is of great importance in agricultural efficiency and rura...
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