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Identifying a Tool for Measuring Team Identification among Football Fans in Qatar (Dissertation Sample)


The paper was a research to determine a tool for team identification among football fans in Qatar. It involved a research on relevant literature to determine an effective tool to measure team identification.


Identifying a Tool for Measuring Team Identification among Football Fans in Qatar
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Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Abstract PAGEREF _Toc421453958 \h 3Introduction PAGEREF _Toc421453959 \h 4Statement of Problem PAGEREF _Toc421453960 \h 5Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc421453961 \h 5Methodology PAGEREF _Toc421453962 \h 8Definition of Key Terms PAGEREF _Toc421453963 \h 9Screening: & elimination criteria: PAGEREF _Toc421453964 \h 10Results PAGEREF _Toc421453965 \h 11TIS and SSIS Scales PAGEREF _Toc421453966 \h 12Application of the TIS and SSIS Scales PAGEREF _Toc421453967 \h 12Limitations of the Research Design PAGEREF _Toc421453968 \h 13Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc421453969 \h 13References PAGEREF _Toc421453970 \h 14
Team identification has been a significant topic of research in most sports studies to determine the behavior of fans. It refers to the level with which fans feel connected to their favorite teams (Greenwood, Kanters, & Casper, 2006). Kim and Kim (2009) explain the concept of team identification as "the level of psychological attachment felt by a sports fan toward his or her favorite team." Most studies have focused on the team identification among fans of well-established sports franchises. This studies on the Qatari football fans that despite their historical attractions to their football clubs, they are still not well connected to these teams, and therefore they do not attend football games like other fans across the globe. The study will use Team Identification scale (TIS) and Sports Spectator Identification Scale (SSIS) to determine the behavior of Arabic fans of Qatari Football League. The results of this study are crucial for the development of the Qatari Football League. They also offer perfect information that can be used by the Qatari Football League to market itself further to attract more fans. The results of this study show the need to carry out more research on the team identification among football teams in Qatar as well as other Asian countries.
Team Identification and Spectator Identification are some of the most important aspects of any professional sport. The need to understand fan behaviors with relationship to their teams is essential as it helps in the determination of how best to manage the sport team as well as the packaging, prices and the promotion of that team (Greenwood, Kanters, & Casper, 2006). In Qatar, the state of the football league is still wanting with very few fans identifying themselves with their football teams. There is a general lack of interest among people in Qatar with regards to the football league as only a handful of fans have shown their commitment to their teams (Scott, 2014). However, there have not been extensive studies on this issue to establish what has led to the lack of interest among the Qatari people on football matters. This study aims to come up with a tool that can be used to measure team Identification among football fans in Qatar.
Professional sport has continued to evolve over the years, and this has created the need for better research on the behaviors of fans as well as their identification with particular sports teams. People decide to support various teams based on individual several reasons. Lock, Taylor, & Darcy, (2008) informs that most recent studies on this topic has revealed that the main reason most individuals identify themselves with particular teams is due to the need to achieve a positive self-image. Most studies on sports spectators and their behaviors have mainly focused on team identification by these fans. The ability of sports fans to acquire a psychological relationship with their sports teams has dominated most studies due to its complex nature (James & Ross, 2004; Wann et al., 2003).
Most of these studies on the behaviors and team identification by fans have mainly concentrated on teams that are widely supported by documented history that most of these fans draw their attachment. The situation in Qatar is different with the league being relatively new, and most teams do not have significant history to draw fans into the stadiums. The Qatari football league was founded in 1963, but the first full season was played in 1972(Qatar Football Association, 2015). Most of the Qatari people are not attached to their football teams, and this makes it difficult to attract fans into the stadiums (Scott, 2014). It is in this light that this research paper seeks to find a way in which to determine the ways in which football teams in Qatar can attract more fans.
Statement of Problem
There is very little literature with regards to the state of the football league in Qatar. The behaviors and team identification among the Arabic fans in Qatar is under-researched therefore creating an opportunity for research into this phenomenon (Scott, 2014). This study will be useful to sports management as a whole as it aims to determine tool measure team identification among football fans in Qatar. The study will rely on other studies that have shown how fans bond to their teams to identify the ways through which more fans can get attracted to .their football teams in Qatar. By researching on the behavior and team identification among Arabic fans in Qatar, we are likely to expand on the phenomenon of fan identification to their sports teams.
Literature Review
Studies by Wann, Afthinos, & Nassis (2006), demonstrate that team Identification scale (TIS) and spectator identification scale (SSIS) are linked to the psychological attachment fans develop for their teams. It solely implies that fans change their view on the progress achieved by the team as a critical component or part of their lives. The study is supported by Theordorakis, Koustelios, Robinson, & Barlas (2009) who argue that spectator behavior or patterns of mannerism may be affected by their psychological attachment, culture, and demographic region linked to the team. Theodorakis, Wann, Dimmock, & Barlas (2010) in an effort to help people comprehend the topic demonstrate that many researchers have issued tri-dimensional studies, which aim at investigating the psychological attachment that develops between the team and spectators. The examination of some of these results will help in evaluating the substantial effects of TIS and SSIS on behavioral habits of the sports spectators.
Test and re-rest validity of TIS and SSIS can be examined on the ability of research to demonstrate similar factors or similar fan behavior through research conducted in varied regions or diverse teams. These habits will help understand the effect of psychological attachments in changing the fans' habits to suit the needs of the team. Dimmock, Grove, & Eklund (2010) and Gencer (2010) document that TIS and SSIS are critical determinants in the spending habits of consumers that align their lives with the team's progress. The aspect of the cognitive attachment developed through the spending habits can be applied and tested in the study. The cognitive aspect demonstrates an internal consistency inhabits fuelled by an emotional or psychological attachment to the progress achieved by a team. Gau, James, & Kim (2009) argue that the emotional attachments are dwelled on to the psych of the spectators such that they can make emotional investments including factors such as becoming strict club members. These studies were examined in over three teams, where the spectators showed their real commitment towards being involved in the daily habits or routines of their team members.
TIS and SSIS are also linked to high involvement with both positive and negative attributes of a team. Greenwood, Kanters, & Casper (2006), for example, demonstrate that fan identification is linked to positive characteristics such as familial closeness and high interdependence in support for the same team. Potter& Keene (2012) document TIS creates a strong desire to build a connection with people that admire similar attributes in the team. Their study proves that team identification creates an emotional stimulus, which moves the fan and creates a desire for the fan to be linked to all matters involving the team. These issues include negative attributes such as being involved in fights for the sake of identifying with the team attributes Greenwood, Kanters, & Casper (2006). Wann & Polk (2007) document a positive social relationship is an essential attribute that binds people or fosters relationships that extend beyond race and other differing factors. Their study just as that of Greenwood, Kanters, & Casper (2006) proves that TIS and SSIS are linked with strong social connections, which create a desire for social connections. An absence of TIS or SSIS between an individual and fans of another team can create feeling of alienation or loneliness, while a presence of TIS and SSIS create strong positive self-esteem and positive emotions, which are linked with future progress regarding the team (Lanter, 2011).
TIS and SSIS also demonstrate according to the hypothesis concurrent traits or behaviors developed through time. Research by Greenwood (2001), for example, argues there are a variety of factors that build or creates the need for an individual to identify or become a fan of a particular team. The same study also proved there are various factors, which build or strengthen the desire for a person to continue being a member of the team. Previous parental attachment, especially concerning the male gender, was linked to the future lineage involvement with the same team (Theodorakis et al., 2009). The same principal can be used in evaluating the winning streak of the team. Many people admire the idea of being linked to winning teams. Consequently, they develop a strong affinity with the team as a consequence of the team to emerge victoriously. Suh, Han, & Pedersen (2013) in a st...
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