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Life Sciences
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Dissertation
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English (U.S.)
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Studies On Photo Stabilization Of Pyrethrum Flower Extracts Using Clay (Dissertation Sample)

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Master's IN CHEMISTRY DISSERTATION

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Content:
STUDIES ON PHOTO STABILIZATION OF PYRETHRUM FLOWER EXTRACTS USING CLAY
ESTHER WAMAITHA MAINA
MASTER OF SCIENCE
(Chemistry)
JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OF
AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY
2016 Studies on Photo Stabilization of Pyrethrum Flower Extracts using Clay
Esther Wamaitha Maina
A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the Degree of Master of Science in Chemistry in the Jomo Kenyatta university of Agriculture and Technology
2016 DECLARATION
This thesis is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other university.
Signature……………………………………… Date………………………
Maina Esther Wamaitha
This thesis has been submitted for examination with our approval as university supervisors.
Signature……………………………………… Date………………………
Dr. Harrison N. Wanyika
JKUAT, Kenya
Signature……………………………………… Date………………………
Prof. Anthony Gachanja
JKUAT, Kenya.

DEDICATION
This work is dedicated to my family. Special dedication to my dad, Gidraph Maina, mum, Priscillah Maina, sister, Carol Maina and to my husband and a great friend Paul Waweru for their love and spiritual advice to my life.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First, I thank Almighty God for His many blessings He has granted me. I would also like to express my deep thanks and great appreciation to my supervisors; Dr. Harrison Wanyika and Prof. Anthony Gachanja for their advice, continuous help, support and encouragement throughout the research period.
I would also like to thank NACOSTI for funding the research and the Department of Chemistry, JKUAT for their support in form of facilities and laboratory space.
I would never be able to thank enough my family for the unconditional love and support that they have always shown me. I owe them my most sincere and deep gratitude.
Lastly, and not the least my gratitude goes to my fellow graduate students who worked with me on the bench for all the support, care and positive criticism.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 TOC \o "1-5" \h \z \u  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701503" DECLARATION  PAGEREF _Toc456701503 \h ii
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701514" DEDICATION  PAGEREF _Toc456701514 \h iii
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701516" ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  PAGEREF _Toc456701516 \h iv
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701521" TABLE OF CONTENTS  PAGEREF _Toc456701521 \h v
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701522" LIST OF TABLES  PAGEREF _Toc456701522 \h ix
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701533" LIST OF FIGURES  PAGEREF _Toc456701533 \h x
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701559" LIST OF SYMBOLS  PAGEREF _Toc456701559 \h xii
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701582" LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS  PAGEREF _Toc456701582 \h xiv
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701594" ABSTRACT  PAGEREF _Toc456701594 \h xv
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701596" CHAPTER ONE  PAGEREF _Toc456701596 \h 1
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701597" INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW  PAGEREF _Toc456701597 \h 1
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701598" 1.1 Background of the study  PAGEREF _Toc456701598 \h 1
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701605" 1.2 Pyrethrum flower  PAGEREF _Toc456701605 \h 3
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701608" 1.3 Clay materials  PAGEREF _Toc456701608 \h 4
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701612" 1.4 Organo clays synthesis and their applications  PAGEREF _Toc456701612 \h 5
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701629" 1.5 Cation exchange capacity  PAGEREF _Toc456701629 \h 6
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701631" 1.6 Characterization of clays  PAGEREF _Toc456701631 \h 7
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701633" 1.6.1 Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy  PAGEREF _Toc456701633 \h 7
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701636" 1.6.2 X-ray diffractometry  PAGEREF _Toc456701636 \h 8
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701643" 1.6.3 X-Ray Florescence  PAGEREF _Toc456701643 \h 9
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701645" 1.7 Adsorption isotherms  PAGEREF _Toc456701645 \h 9
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701651" 1.7.1 Kinetic models of sorption  PAGEREF _Toc456701651 \h 10
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701657" 1.8 Storage of cereals  PAGEREF _Toc456701657 \h 11
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701661" 1.9 Botanical control of Cereals  PAGEREF _Toc456701661 \h 12
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701663" 1.10 Statement of the problem  PAGEREF _Toc456701663 \h 12
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701665" 1.11 Justification  PAGEREF _Toc456701665 \h 12
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701667" 1.12 Hypothesis  PAGEREF _Toc456701667 \h 13
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701669" 1.13 Objectives  PAGEREF _Toc456701669 \h 13
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701670" 1.13.1 General Objective  PAGEREF _Toc456701670 \h 13
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701672" 1.13.2 Specific objectives  PAGEREF _Toc456701672 \h 13
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701677" 1.14 Significance of the study  PAGEREF _Toc456701677 \h 13
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701679" 1.15 Scope and Limitations  PAGEREF _Toc456701679 \h 14
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701681" CHAPTER TWO  PAGEREF _Toc456701681 \h 15
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701682" MATERIALS AND METHODS  PAGEREF _Toc456701682 \h 15
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701683" 2.1 Research designs  PAGEREF _Toc456701683 \h 15
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701685" 2.2 Solvents and reagents  PAGEREF _Toc456701685 \h 15
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701687" 2.3 Preparation of standards  PAGEREF _Toc456701687 \h 15
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701689" 2.4 Collection of clay samples and pretreatment  PAGEREF _Toc456701689 \h 15
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701694" 2.5 Isolation ofclays  PAGEREF _Toc456701694 \h 17
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701696" 2.6 Characterization of the clays  PAGEREF _Toc456701696 \h 17
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701697" 2.6.1 Elemental analysis using total x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF)  PAGEREF _Toc456701697 \h 17
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701701" 2.6.2 Determination of basal spacing and crystallite size  PAGEREF _Toc456701701 \h 18
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701706" 2.6.3 Determination of cation exchange capacity(CEC) of clay  PAGEREF _Toc456701706 \h 19
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701709" 2.6.4 Functional groups determination using fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy  PAGEREF _Toc456701709 \h 20
 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc456701711" 2.6.5 UV-Visible spectrophotometry for determination...
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