Blacks and Hispanics Incarceration in the US (Dissertation Sample)
This paper title/thesis should be based on "Are blacks and hispanics more incarcerated in America than any other race."
Your introductory section should include: the background of your study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, and the significance of the study. The background gives the reader some information on your topic. The “statement of the problem” is an opportunity to engage the reader in the issue at hand. The purpose of your study gives the plan for your paper. The significance of your study should discuss why your topic is important to the criminal justice field.
The review of literature should include a brief historical overview of your topic. You have started this section but have not completed it. You have already begun delving into some studies on your topic. Add more to this section. Also include the theoretical framework of your paper. The theoretical framework is the theory that helps explain why the problem exists. It would greatly help if you create an outline, first. Also, you do not need to include the annotated bibliography in your paper.
Mass Incarceration in the US
Mass incarceration in the US has been in existence since late 1900. The members of the minority group (Black and the Hispanics) have been incarcerated for a long time with a view of being associated with criminal activities within the US border. However, the previous literature shed some light on the causes that lead to the incarceration of Blacks and Hispanics. Some of the studies view incarceration result of criminal activities, while some view it as racial. The US crime level is approximately the same among the black, white, and Hispanics. However, the number of people who have been imprisoned are mostly blacks and Hispanics. Most black and Hispanic people are never given a chance, even with petty crimes, while the criminal justice system sets others up because of the prejudices over a given group of people. The paper shows the trauma that the blacks and Hispanic face and the levels of incarceration within the US borders.
Keywords: incarceration, prejudices,
Table of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Abstract PAGEREF _Toc80111076 \h 2Chapter 1: Introduction PAGEREF _Toc80111077 \h 51.1Contextual Background PAGEREF _Toc80111078 \h 51.2Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc80111079 \h 51.3Theoretical Background PAGEREF _Toc80111080 \h 61.4Purpose of the study PAGEREF _Toc80111081 \h 71.5Significance of the study PAGEREF _Toc80111082 \h 71.6Methodological Overview PAGEREF _Toc80111083 \h 71.7Scope of the study PAGEREF _Toc80111084 \h 71.8Dissertation structure PAGEREF _Toc80111085 \h 71.9Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc80111086 \h 8Chapter 2: Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc80111087 \h 92.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc80111088 \h 92.2Theoretical Evidence PAGEREF _Toc80111089 \h 92.2.1Conflict theory PAGEREF _Toc80111090 \h 92.2.1Labeling theory PAGEREF _Toc80111091 \h 102.3Empirical evidence PAGEREF _Toc80111092 \h 102.3.1Historical overview PAGEREF _Toc80111093 \h 102.3.2Police Deviance, Corruption, and Control PAGEREF _Toc80111094 \h 112.3.4Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc80111095 \h 15Chapter Three: Research Methodology PAGEREF _Toc80111096 \h 163.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc80111097 \h 163.2Research Philosophy PAGEREF _Toc80111098 \h 163.3Research Approach PAGEREF _Toc80111099 \h 163.4Research Method PAGEREF _Toc80111100 \h 173.5Research Design PAGEREF _Toc80111101 \h 173.6Data Collection Procedures PAGEREF _Toc80111102 \h 183.6.1Search Strategy PAGEREF _Toc80111103 \h 183.6.2 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria PAGEREF _Toc80111104 \h 183.7Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc80111105 \h 203.8Ethical Considerations PAGEREF _Toc80111106 \h 203.9Validity, Reliability, and Generalizability PAGEREF _Toc80111107 \h 203.10Limitations of the Methodology PAGEREF _Toc80111108 \h 213.11Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc80111109 \h 21Chapter Four: Results and Analysis PAGEREF _Toc80111110 \h 224.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc80111111 \h 224.2Articles Reviewed PAGEREF _Toc80111112 \h 224.3Arrest PAGEREF _Toc80111113 \h 244.4Plea Bargaining PAGEREF _Toc80111114 \h 254.5Criminal justice system: corrections PAGEREF _Toc80111115 \h 254.6Jury Verdicts PAGEREF _Toc80111116 \h 274.7Police brutality PAGEREF _Toc80111117 \h 284.8Effects of incarceration PAGEREF _Toc80111118 \h 294.9COVID-19 and infectious diseases PAGEREF _Toc80111119 \h 294.10Penal labor and prison industrial complex PAGEREF _Toc80111120 \h 304.11Cycle of incarceration PAGEREF _Toc80111121 \h 304.12Summary PAGEREF _Toc80111122 \h 31Chapter Five: Conclusion and Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc80111123 \h 325.1Summary PAGEREF _Toc80111124 \h 325.2Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc80111125 \h 33References PAGEREF _Toc80111126 \h 34
Chapter 1: Introduction
1 Contextual Background
The research is conducted to identify the levels of incarceration in the United States of America. Imprisonment in the US displays that punitive, excess racial profiling and mass incarceration are common phenomena. The incarceration portrays an ugly truth that is hidden within the policies and structures of the US. The criminal justice system is silent, and they show unwillingness to confront the injustices done to people of color. The criminal justice system is silent towards facing the history of oppression and the devaluation of other races, and this makes it challenging to make justice attainable in the USA. The current study focuses on the injustices conducted to the people of color despite policies and regulations set within the US. Understanding the mass of the relationship within mass incarceration will help the US government formulate working policies that will help end mass incarceration among people of color.
2 Problem Statement
The United States has the highest incarceration rate that remains unsurpassed internationally. Over the last forty years, the incarceration rate has increased by 500% due to social, institutional, and political forces (Bronson & Carson, 2019). Initially, the high incarceration rates targeted distinct minority groups: the black American and Latino communities, which could be related to police deviance. Over time, the disparity between the minorities and white inmates in the prison population narrowed as white inmates increased. This may be attributed to reported increasing crime incidences among the white population (Bronson & Carson, 2019).
Currently, with the election of Donald Trump as America’s 45th president, the immigration-crime nexus has grown to be the center of analysis and debate. The U.S. has experienced an enormous wave of deportation of immigrants, and this has been theoretically linked to decreased crime rates, more so among Latinos. Nevertheless, some studies contest this school of thought that associates the current stringent immigration policies with declining crime rates (Bronson & Carson, 2019). In the face of this conflicting viewpoint, a gap exists to conclusively support the main argument that informs crime rate dynamics (Ousey & Kubrin, 2017). These gaps mainly exist in the sphere of property crime rates, where the immigrant population is treated as a homogenous entity (Baker, 2015). Therefore, this intended longitudinal research will help unpack the homogeneity in property crime rate dynamics.
3 Theoretical Background
Based on the existing literature, mass incarceration has become a culture and trend in the United States. The responsibility of investigating a crime and gathering evidence to identify and use against a presumed perpetrator falls on law enforcement officials. The law enforcement officials operate on the presumption that until proven guilty, individuals remain suspects and innocent (Kazemi et al., 2019). A Black person is five times more likely to be stopped without just cause than a white person. A Black man is twice more likely to be stopped without just cause than a Black woman. 65% of Black adults have felt targeted because of their race. Similarly, approximately 35% of Latino and Asian adults have felt targeted because of their race (Burki, 2017).
4 Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to analyze the levels of incarceration in the United States, the impact of imprisonment and to display the criminal justice system's role in increasing the rate of mass incarceration and promoting social disparity as they fight crime within the US borders.
5 Significance of the study
Through this study, the US citizens, society, and the federal system will understand the onset of incarceration and how racial profiling leads to increased criminal activities as the group that feels segregated tend to behave in a hostile manner believing that they are the ones targeted.
6 Methodological Overview
The research uses a mixed-method to understand the mass incarceration among blacks and Hispanics in the USA. The research collects data from past studies where the experiences, perceptions, and knowledge of individuals were collected. The purpose and significance of the study are obtained through a critical review of the qualitative studies in the field. Quantitative data is collected to display the levels of incarceration over time.
7 Scope of the study
The study will cover mass incarceration history and how it became very active in the current times, and the factors that increase incarceration among the US immigrants, black and Hispanic. The study also focuses on how the criminal justice system is enhancing the levels of incarceration through racial profiling and racial hierarchy.
8 Dissertation structure
The dissertation is organized into five chapters, the first chapter is the introduction to the dissertation, and it clearly states the purpose and significance of the study. The second chapter is the literature review which provides a critical review of various studies on the topic that the dissertation builds. The third chapter is the research methodology chapter which focuses on the approaches used in the collection of data for this study. The fourth provides the research finding of the study, and the fifth chapter is the last chapter of this dissertation, and it interprets the research findings and gives the conclusion to the dissertation.
The primary aspects covered in the introduction chapter of this dissertation are the contextual and theoretical background of the research study, the purpose of the study, the significance of the study, an overview of the methodology employed in the current study. The last part is the scope and the structure of the dissertation. The next chapter focuses on the review and of studies concerning mass incarcerations in the USA.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
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