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4 pages/≈1100 words
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APA
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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
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English (U.S.)
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Topic:

The Summary on the Recent Opiod Crisis (Essay Sample)

Instructions:

Summary of Opioid Crisis
There is a disparity in opioid abuse in rural and urban areas. Although both are affected in one way or another, maternal opioid exposure is more devastating in rural settings than in urban areas. Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is frequent in rural areas. This implies that children exposed to opioid abuse are born with existing withdrawal symptoms since they have been exposed to it while still in the uterus (Gordon, 2018). Thus, maternal opioid use affects the mothers and the infants who suffer most from this act of carelessness.
Impact on perinatal and early development
Maternal use of opioids during pregnancy can have adverse effects on both the mother and the child, thus leading to an opioid epidemic that extends to several generations (Gordon, 2018). While mothers may experience preterm labor and early delivery, unborn children exposed to opioids are more likely to be born preterm or even stillbirth. In this regard, the impacts of opioid exposure on infants include low psychomotor and mental development, hypoxia, impaired neurodevelopment, reduced cognitive development, lower IQ functioning, and deficits in language and reading.
Treatment or other recommendations
Fighting the opioid epidemic requires the urgent intervention of the policymakers to precisely identify and fund the clinicians and programs meant for the prevention and treatment of opioids. This can be done by increasing the rural access to healthcare services by women and infants on opioid exposure. Further, creating awareness on the comorbidities associated with opioid abuse and dedicating more research to point out the factors that bring about the geographic differences in maternal opioid exposure and NAS.
Current research on the Opioid Crisis; what are the significant findings?
The current research findings on the opioid crisis and its effects on infants and families show that its use is associated with various effects such as poor nutrition, low living standards, and other disorders (Gordon, 2018). Additionally, findings show that infants exposed to opioids while still in the uterus experience reduced birth weight and preterm birth, linked with NAS and other health issues. Studies show that children below six years of age exposed to opioids have a higher risk of developing emotional disorders and abnormal physiological development. At the same time, those above six years are more likely to experience attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In general, data shows that prenatal exposure to opioids is associated with high risks of different and interrelated prenatal and postnatal health issues and neurodevelopmental implications that unfold over generations.
The finding on current research on the opioid crisis indicates that most pharmaceutical companies are involved in marketing the drug. These industries are significant investors in opioid marketing such that tens of millions of cash are used in direct physician marketing of the opioid drug annually (Gordon, 2018). Ideally, the marketing practices of the pharmaceutical industries have primarily contributed to the early stages of opioid misuse due to the oversupplied prescriptions leading to death from opioid overdose in families. This is because the drug is freely rotating in society, and families can easily access and misuse it at a cheaper cost.
Existing research; strengths and weaknesses
The existing research on the opioid crisis has numerous strengths. The research's approach on the birth unit design made it possible to study prenatal life before NAS and the possible postnatal outcomes of maternal exposure to opioids. By using physician diagnoses, the data and findings from the research are more reliable than the maternal research. However, the research may be exposed to misclassification due to unknown exposure, leading to NAS. Also, using a low-income minority population restricts the generalizability of the research findings, thus the need for expanded research.
Recommendations for future studies; what are the priorities?
Policymakers should put more effort into eradicating opioids, specifically by reducing the number of prescriptions to the expectant mother. Also, they should develop effective programs and strategies that would help prevent NAS and mitigate the health outcomes related to NAS in the developmental stages of an infant. Further studies should be done to identify the possible ways of keeping the mother and the fetus safe from substance abuse during the gestation period.
Application to the field of Early Intervention; impacts on young children and families?
Early intervention on opioid abuse is essential to the mother, infant, and the family's overall health. The focus should be on those who are already addicted and individuals who do not have a history of opioid overdose. Thus, over-prescription of pain meds by improving pain management is an approach that will help in prevention intervention. Interventions at the prenatal stage include interventions by nurses who guide first-time moms during and after pregnancy. This would help them in bringing out healthy children free from NAS and other health-related problems. Further, early intervention will help families and adolescents not indulge in substance abuse and the juvenile justice system. It would also help in reducing the number of dysfunctional homes.
Reflection: What are the personal, social, and ethical issues this topic raises for you?
Regarding this topic, I have learned that the problem of opioid abuse is mainly a result of individuals accepting to use an illegal yet recreational drug as a treatment drug. The society comprises dysfunctional families associated with opioid abuse, and many infants are the most affected by this act (Villa piano et al., 2017). I have learned that when mothers are given an opioid prescription as a pain drug, it harms their health and that of their unborn children. Additionally, I have learned that it is unethical for drug production companies to jeopardize a mother, an infant, and the overall household just because they want to maximize profits. Thus, capitalizing on such drugs as an opioid, which pose a great risk to an individual's health should be questioned, and society should rise to protect themselves against such acts.
Implications for the field of Early Intervention, policymakers, global leaders
Early intervention would help prevent and protect families and society from the adverse effects of opioid abuse (Villa piano et al., 2017). Through early interventions and with the help of policymakers, the global leaders will focus on preventing and protecting individuals from disorders associated with the opioid. This will help reduce the number of people admitted in the hospitals and deal with the congestions in prisons and juvenile justice institutions. Additionally, with the input of key stakeholders, policymakers can develop an overarching prenatal and postnatal strategic plan that would help ensure the safety of both the mother and the child. By investing in such strategic plans, the global leaders position themselves to achieve a sustainable outcome.
Finally, the implications of opioid overdose on mothers and children are adverse. Exposing an infant to such drugs limits their developmental stages. Expectant mothers should therefore be careful so as not to endanger their lives and that of the unborn babies

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Content:


Opioid Crisis and how it affects early intervention/development of children and how it affects families
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Summary of Opioid Crisis
There is a disparity in opioid abuse in rural and urban areas. Although both are affected in one way or another, maternal opioid exposure is more devastating in rural settings than in urban areas. Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is frequent in rural areas. This implies that children exposed to opioid abuse are born with existing withdrawal symptoms since they have been exposed to it while still in the uterus (Gordon, 2018). Thus, maternal opioid use affects the mothers and the infants who suffer most from this act of carelessness.
Impact on perinatal and early development
Maternal use of opioids during pregnancy can have adverse effects on both the mother and the child, thus leading to an opioid epidemic that extends to several generations (Gordon, 2018). While mothers may experience preterm labor and early delivery, unborn children exposed to opioids are more likely to be born preterm or even stillbirth. In this regard, the impacts of opioid exposure on infants include low psychomotor and mental development, hypoxia, impaired neurodevelopment, reduced cognitive development, lower IQ functioning, and deficits in language and reading.
Treatment or other recommendations
Fighting the opioid epidemic requires the urgent intervention of the policymakers to precisely identify and fund the clinicians and programs meant for the prevention and treatment of opioids. This can be done by increasing the rural access to healthcare services by women and infants on opioid exposure. Further, creating awareness on the comorbidities associated with opioid abuse and dedicating more research to point out the factors that bring about the geographic differences in maternal opioid exposure and NAS.
Current research on the Opioid Crisis; what are the significant findings?
The current research findings on the opioid crisis and its effects on infants and families show that its use is associated with various effects such as poor nutrition, low living standards, and other disorders (Gordon, 2018). Additionally, findings show that infants exposed to opioids while still in the uterus experience reduced birth weight and preterm birth, linked with NAS and other health issues. Studies show that children below six years of age exposed to opioids have a higher risk of developing emotional disorders and abnormal physiological development. At the same time, those above six years are more likely to experience attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In general, data shows that prenatal exposure to opioids is associated with high risks of different and interrelated prenatal and postnatal health issues and neurodevelopmental implications that unfold over generations.

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