Children’s Development and Learning
Children development and learning are determined by interactions with a wide range of interventions, impacts, and influences, which reflect the complex development and learning process. The influences of child’s development and learning can be behavioral, biological, social, and physical (Evans, 2006). The impacts, influences, and interventions on the child’s learning and development are highly intertwined as well as difficult to separate. In this perspective, the terms development and education relate to the changes around physical growth and ability of a child to learn the emotional, communication, thinking, as well as social skills they require in life (Farrington & Loeber, 2001). All these aspects are intertwined. They rely on, affect, and influence others.
At an early age, a children’s’ brain develop faster and more as compared to other stages of their life. At the very young age, a child experience things they touch, hear, smell, see, and taste, which in turn stimulate the brain of a child by making millions of connection. Consequently, there is an establishment of the foundation of learning, behavior, and health all through the life of a child (Fox, Levitt & Nelson, 2010). Studies have indicated that the first five years of a child are especially important for the learning and development of his brain (Evans, 2006). Out of the nearly five years of child growth, the first three years are vital in architecture and shaping of a child’s brain. The early experiences in child’s life give a foundation for organizational development and function of a child’s brain throughout his life. These initial years have a direct effect on the way a child develop emotional, social and learning skills (Kostelnik et al., 2016). A child learns faster during the first five years as compared to any other time in their life. Hence, a child needs to be loved and nurtured with the aim of developing a sense of security and trust, which in turns change into confidence as they grow. Young kids learn, develop and grow quickly when they are shown love and affection, reinforcement, attention, and mental stimulation and alongside healthy meals and good health care.
Comprehending the initial stages of the child development assists parents to learn how to anticipate and provide good support a child needs when he or she develop and grow (Tierney & Nelson, 2009). The nature or kind of new relationship between child and caregiver have a crucial role in supporting as well as fostering of cognitive development (Bandura, 2001). The nature of that relationship affects a child development, especially the social and emotional characteristic of a child. In many environments, early childhood intervention programs help families and their children at the early age and enhance a critical transition from home to school (Kostelnik et al., 2016). All kids have a right to be brought up in a family and access healthy food, health care, play, and protection from abuses and discrimination.
In addition, they have the right to grow up in a setting where they are supported to reach their full potential in life. Therefore, it the responsibilities and duties of all the stakeholders involved making sure these essential of child development and learning are met, supported and respected (Benson & Haith, 2009). As a result, many factors promote as well as limit a healthy growth of a child. This research paper seeks to focus on the relationship between these factors and child’s learning/development (Tierney & Nelson, 2009). This paper gives an in-depth analysis of the impacts, influences, and intervention of child’s development and learning.
Impacts and influences that promote or limit children’s development and learning
The complex process of development and learning in a child’s life is determined by multitudes of effects and controls, which either limit or promote a child’s development and learning process. The impacts and influences are divided into the cognitive domain, social, emotional domain, and physical, sensory or motor domain. Many of factors within the cognitive domain, socio-emotional domain, and sensory, physical or motor domain play a major role in the healthy learning and development of a child. These sections research more about theses impacts and influences.
During the stage of toddlerhood and infancy, it is hard to isolate one learning and developmental domain from any other. Since there complete dependence of infants on their caregiver, all areas of child development develop within the framework of child’s relationship with others (Kostelnik et al., 2016). Because of the most important relationships, children can grow self-concept, curiosity, confidence, self-control, relatedness, motivation, and cooperation. Relationships are the core component of early childhood experiences, which strengthen developmental competence as well as school readiness.
As the child grows, their firm senses of attachment to significant individuals in their nurtures the encouragement to connect with the environment around them. Relationships are the key component that guides a child through a learning process and makes a difference in the manner at which a child develops a sense of self, what a child can do, and the impact it has on others (Thompson, 2009). In the end, this kind of awareness creates the socio-emotional characteristics that have been noted as the signs for readiness to grow and learn.
Trusting, warm and responsive relationships are at the heart of healthy emotional as well as social development. The first experiences of a child’s relationships influences and affects the architecture and design of a child’s brain. As a result, it makes the foundation of the future social management as well as interactions of emotions.
When the caregiver is in tune with emotions of a child, then the child can perceive their emotion reflected in the feedbacks they get from their caregivers. In this manner, children learn how to feel, manage, as well as experience their emotions. This process of learning becomes supported in the connections of the brain and gives children a strong basis for managing their emotions as they mature (Kostelnik et al., 2016). When a child gets involved in responsive, trusting, and warm relationships, the brain releases endorphins that are related with pleasurable feelings. This shows that a child relates feeling good with social experiences. Studies have revealed that the areas of the brain connected to socio-emotional functioning grow in reaction to the experiences of early relationship with individuals around them and crucial caregivers. Therefore, hearing language is not enough for a child to master the language, but the complexities of interactive relationships promote the child’s developmental language during their early childhood.
Caregivers and parents are important impacts on children development, especially in areas such as emotional and social skills. They give a child ability to express emotions, communicate, cope, cooperate, negotiate conflict, and compromises, which promote or limit the child’s development of strong emotional as well as social functioning (Kostelnik et al., 2016). Caregivers or parents provide supportive and safe relationships to a child, and it helps in the creation of nurturing the world for a child. The partnership of families is also a significant impact since it is a foundation for a successful child development and learning. Relationships of a child and family bring the aspects of child cultural awareness, personalized attention, acceptance, mutual respect, flexibility, trust, and objectivity in their life.
• Physical, sensory or motor
Motor, physical or sensory skills are the first to appear in the early development and learning of a child. These skills entail receiving information from the senses and incorporating them with motor movement to finish the perceived action. Sensory motor skills are required for an extensive range of tasks and have an important role in development and learning process of a child’s life (Fox, Levitt & Nelson, 2010). They play the role of self-regulation. A well-controlled sensory motor framework reinforces self-care and self-confidence skills, executive learning as well as academic learning of children. Information from sensory experiences is important in the development of child’s brain. The senses help children to learn how to incorporate sensation and combine all information from senses to finish tasks. Sensory motors skills are core influences and impacts of child’s development of speech, learning, play, as well as gross motor movements.
• Cognitive domains
Cognitive skills in children development and learning involve a continuously building on learning skills such as thinking, memory, and attention. These critical skills help kids to process sensory information and ultimately learn to analyze, remember, evaluate, understand cause and effect, and make comparisons. Despite the fact that they are connected to the genetic setup of a child, most of these skills are mastered.
Attention skills help a child to focus on one conversation or one task for a long duration. A child learning to focus is crucial cognitive skills that help the child to use it effectively for future development and learning (Bernier, Carlson & Whipple, 2010). A memory ability is a significant cognitive skill that assists a child to retain the thing he or she has experienced and learned, and eventually, create a future based on knowledge. Thinking ability assists a child in differentiating if he or she is making accomplishment of what they are intended to do.
Bio-psycho-social model of development and learning
Social and behavioral learning theories. This group of models denotes the importance of the nurturing as well as the environme...