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Contract Administration and Management. The Small Business Act (Essay Sample)

Running Head: SMALL BUSINESS ACT Contract Administration and Management The Small Business Act Name Institution Course Tutor Date Contract Administration and Management The government is doing quite well in facilitating small businesses to acquire contracts in their major. One of the reasons supporting this position is that the government has continuously engaged in creating acts that recognize the existence of small businesses. In 1956, government passed the Small Business Act, which instigated the government to award small a fair proportion of its federal contracts to small businesses (Stanberry, 2012). It also stipulates that small businesses that are at a disadvantaged position should be given maximum practical opportunity to participate in contracting. In a more practical facilitation, all procurements ranging from three thousand to one hundred thousand are allocated to small businesses. There is a percentage set for all federal contracts such that twenty-three percent goes to small businesses and five percent go to small disadvantaged groups (Stanberry, 2012). The first requirement is registering the business as a vendor with the government. During the process of entering information about the company in the system for award management (SAM) database, I will certify that the business to meet the criteria stipulated. In order to meet the requirements, the company will be divided (Stanberry, 2012) into affiliates such that number of employees and annual receipts over the past three years match the criteria stipulated. However, the main company will be registered independently to prove independence in ownership. The company will lie within all codes classifying small businesses. Recently, contract management has a variety of aspects and lacking uniform procedure. In an opinion, the rules are not justified for allowing growing companies to fall under small businesses. The main justification is that the opportunities awarded to small businesses are because they cannot compete fairly with the big companies. The growing companies should be included in the bracket of already established companies. If a business is cited as a growing one, then it means every aspect of the business is changing and expanding (Stanberry, 2012). Its number of employees is likely to grow with its growing nature. Its annual receipts must show an upward trend within the three years stipulated in inclusion as small businesses hence, they fail the criteria for inclusion. Laws that facilitate inclusion of such businesses are not fair because eventually small businesses and disadvantaged businesses will continue to lag behind in participating in government contracting (Stanberry, 2012). Reference list Stanberry, S. A. (2012). Federal contracting made easy (4th ed.). Vienna, VA: Management Concepts. source..

Clinical trials and their benefits
Clinical trials
Clinical trials are studies done to carry out an assessment determining the viability of a medical strategy, treatment, or devices. They assess the effects created if such strategies are implored to a human subject. The studies are carried out to show the best-recommended approach that work best for various illnesses or a certain group of individuals (Yang, 2010). The studies are also effective in helping carry out a decision or effecting a decision based on outcome of the study. The trials are conducted only when satisfactory information available to match health authority standards. Research specialists enroll volunteers or patients into pilot studies to conduct specific tests depending on the product type and development stage (Yang, 2010). Clinical trials vary in intensity. They can be performed in a single country or multiple countries. They are expensive to carry out. The burden of payment is usually bestowed on the sponsor of the research. Sponsors may include government agency or health organizations (Yang, 2010).
Functional rationale
The objectives of clinical trial are to test how well medicine will work on patients. For every clinical trial, there exists a guideline of how to carry out the trial (Yang, 2010). The plan discusses what is to be done, how it will be done, and the importance of all aspect in the study. This includes the importance the general study. There are rules guiding on how to choose the participants in the study. The main factor in choosing the participants is volunteering when a person has sufficient knowledge (Pocock, 2004). They volunteer's health status will be determined by the study since some may need healthy individuals and others may need individuals with certain diseases (Pocock, 2004).
In other instances, gender is used to determine a viable volunteer. There are independent committees set to determine the procedures and monitor the whole exercise. These committees are made up of physicians, statisticians, and members of the community. The committee emphasizes the need to educate all the subjects liable to tests so that they can know the effects of every aspect of the trials (Pocock, 2004). In so doing, the subjects will be well aware of the risks involved such that volunteering shall be out of free will. Since the tests are conducted to human subjects, they are eligible to many legal aspects (Pocock, 2004). They are carried out in four phases. Because the life of an individual may be at risk during the trials, the law provides strict guidelines that facilitate a safe environment for the subject (Pocock, 2004). The shared responsibilities for the safety of the subject heighten safety measures during actual studies. In most cases, women are not subjected to these trials because of several reasons. These reasons are either the woman is in the age of childbearing, is pregnant, and/or she becomes pregnant during the study. Local site investigators carry out continuous assessments to determine the safety of the subject (Pocock, 2004...
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