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Literature & Language
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English (U.S.)
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Mechanisms of Evolution (Essay Sample)

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Evolution theories

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Mechanisms of Evolution
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Mechanisms of Evolution
Introduction
Evolution is when there is a change in the gene frequency in a population from generation to generation by processes such as mutation, natural selection, gene flow and genetic drift over time. These process modifies the existing animal from a common ancestor and give rise to modified offspring (Margulis 1985).
Genetic Drift
It is the random fluctuation in the number of gene variants in a population. This occurs when the occurrence of variant forms of a gene, known as alleles, multiple and reduce by chance over a period of time. In this type, some organisms by chance, leave behind some descendants(gene) than other organisms. The gene of the following generation may likely be the gene of the “lucky” organisms and not necessary the one that is healthier or “better” individuals (Johnson, et al (2019).
Genetic Flow
Gene flow is when population of organisms through migration and immigration, new organisms are created bringing in new genes while other genes will also leave. These can cause some changes in the relative frequencies or percentages of genes within the population. Genetic flow, is when alleles are transferred from a population to another, through migration immigration. When these organisms are large in number, particularly on the land, they can change the overall balance of alleles within the gene pool of the population. When you take a group of subset of your population and remove them. They take away their genetic nature, perhaps lowering or altering, the frequency of the original population.
Mutation
Change in the genetic code changes in genetic code, which is often copying errors that happened during DNA replication. Most mutations have no effect on the organism and go unnoticed. Some mutations alter important genes, harming the organism and decreasing chances of survival. They alter the gene that gives rise to new traits that actually gives the organism an advantage. Mutations are the ultimate source of variations in life on Earth; The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. They are also the reason for the variety of genes and traits that exist in our global gene pool (Deng, et al (2021)
The only way for a mutation to influence the gene pool is if it can be passed onto the next generation. For this to happen in sexual reproduction, the mutation must be present in the gametes. The gametes are sex cells that unite to

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