The Training Evaluation Models (Essay Sample)
Write an essay addressing the following question:
Describe three training evaluation models (Kirkpatrick, Brinkerhoff, Phillips) applied in organizations.
Then state which of the three models (Kirkpatrick, Brinkerhoff, Phillips) would best help a corporate training director generate the data needed for Talent Development Reporting (TDR)?
Justify the choice of the most appropriate one for a corporate training director.
Your essay should meet the following requirements:
1. Please follow the standard essay writing structure. Provide an introductory paragraph, a thesis statement, essay body paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph.
2. Please cover all aspects of the topic that are described above in your essay.
3. Number of sources to use in the paper: four (4) sources. Please use only credible sources published within the past five (5) years. Use two (2) books and two (2) journal (scholarly) articles.
4. Please make sure your paper is plagiarism free. Any borrowed idea should be properly cited. Be sure to avoid copy-pasted sentences.
5. Be sure to follow quality standards for grammar, style, and principles of academic writing (the checklist is attached).
Training Evaluations Models
Training Evaluations Models
Potentially, training boosts organizational revenues by improving the overall productivity and capacity to respond to the set organization goals. Unfortunately, the distinction between flops and practical training has remained a challenging task. In this light, training evaluation models feature helpful tools to categorize the best choice from many training activities. The justification of a training session depends on the set of circumstances across an organization during the implementation time. Training evaluation methods like Brinkerhoff, Kirkpatrick, and Phillips enhance organizational effectiveness evaluation, yet the Phillips model is the most appropriate for talent development reporting (TDR).
The Kirkpatrick Model is the most widespread training model used by organizations today. The evaluation model was developed in 1959 to evaluate training and learning exercises (Ghosh, 2020). The refined Kirkpatrick Model has four levels of evaluation: learning, reaction, results, and behavior. Under the reaction level of the Kirkpatrick Model, the evaluating team assesses the participant’s response to training, learning conditions on the participants’ responses, feelings, and informal responses (Córdova Félix & Sandoval Barraza, 2018). Similarly, the learning level of the Kirkpatrick Model, the trainers, and the evaluation team examine the participants’ understanding using short quizzes to determine the retained contents in the training session (Córdova Félix & Sandoval Barraza, 2018). The assessment aids in the determination of the retained knowledge using a blend of metrics.
The behavior assessment level of the Kirkpatrick Model studies the utility of the learned, retained skills and exhibited changes while practicing intellectual abilities among other pear acquired skills (Cohen, 2017). Kirkpatrick Model examines the returns on expectations at the results level based on the results and stakeholder expectations. The measure focuses on tangible effects like cost reduction, quality improvements, and speed of project completion, and the degree of employee retention, morale, and business results.
Brinkerhoff’s assessment model was introduced in 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of training sessions. Fundamentally, the model uses the success case method (SCM) to identify the least and the most successful training programs. Additionally, the model develops a detailed explanation of the organization’s intervention programs. The SCM model determines the workability of the training programs. However, the method is not limited to assessing training programs because its evaluation context can be applied to new machinery (Córdova Félix & Sandoval Barraza, 2018). Besides, the model studies the most successful participants and the least successful one determining the extreme cases of a training program. Therefore, the model is economically cheaper to apply than the other two training assessment models.
In the 1970s, the Phillips Model was introduced to improve the Kirkpatrick model and address the perceived shortcomings of the model. According to Phillips, the implementation of training programs creates a chain of impacts accompanied by the skills and knowledge learned or applied in the production process (Sahoo & Mishra, 2017). Ultimately, the impacts affect the final return on investment (ROI). The model builds on the Kirkpatrick model by adding the fifth level of evaluation to assess the ROI. Therefore, the refined Phillips model has five broad levels that follow the scope of the Kirkpatrick model.
Under the reaction level, the Phillips model evaluates the participant’s reactions to the training received in a similar approach to the Kirkpatrick model. Through the assessment, organizations determine whether they have the necessary conditions to enhance learning (Sahoo & Mishra, 2017). Like the Kirkpatrick model, the evaluation uses questionnaires and surveys to collect reaction data and participants’ thoughts about the training. Similarly, the learning level of the Phillips model examines whether learning occurred using a similar approach as the Kirkpatrick model (Ghosh, 2020). The Phillips model has an application and implementation level that examines workplace behaviors by assessing the employee’s application of the learned skills (Hughes & Byrd, 2017). Unlike the Kirkpatrick model, believed to have inadequate data collection, the Phillips model is more advanced to cater to the expanded application and implementation of learned skills.
The Phillips model is more effective in explaining whether skills are practiced or not. Additionally, the level of the impact of the Phillips model examines the effects of the training on the organization. The model identifies other factors besides training that affect the delivery outcomes obtained (Sahoo & Mishra, 2017). Hence, the model is more influential in delivering substantial improvements than the Kirkpatrick model because it accounts for the contribution of other factors to the obtained outcomes. With a return on investment level, the model measures the return on investment, an advanc
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