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Literature & Language
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English (U.S.)
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Topic:

What Role Did Gender Play In Increasing Psychiatric Admissions? (Essay Sample)

Instructions:

this assignment WAS ABOUT About analyzing one primary research study related to practice and, following analysis of the findings, MAKING recommendations for a change in practice. so you were to choose a topic within the scope of practice. SO this student at that time was in clinical PLACEMENT within the mental health department. Therefore I came up with a research question THAT STATED {How has covid-19 impacted psychiatric admissions.}
THE ASSIGNMENT WAS TO BE FORMATED IN THIS STRUCTURE;
• Title – This should be your research question.
• Introduction
• Primary Study Review:
o Type of study
o Ethics
o Sample
o Data Collection and Data Analysis
o Key Findings
• Recommendations for Practice
• Conclusion
• References
Learning Outcome One
(1600 words)
Primary Study Review and Discussion

Analyse research evidence related to an area of your practice.
You must analyse ONE primary research article related to your practice. You will structure your work using a series of headings and sub-headings (see Assignment Brief section [above] on how to structure your assignment.
• Type of study (study design) –
o Analyse the study design used by the researcher.
o Discuss the strengths and limitations of the study design.
o Where does the study design fit in the hierarchy of evidence?
o What is the hierarchy of evidence and what does it tell us?
o Was the study design appropriate for the aims of the research study and why?
o If not, what other study design(s) would have been more appropriate, and why?
• Ethics –
o What is ethics and why is it important in research?
o Have the study authors mentioned ethics?
o Did they get ethical approval?
o If ethics has not been mentioned, why might this be?
o Was the study published in a peer review journal? If so, what does this mean, is it a good thing?
o How have the rights of the research participants been protected (think of the principles of ethics)? Has informed consent been given? What is it and why is it important?
• Sample –
o How was the sample selected? In other words, what type of sampling method was used (e.g., random sampling method, volunteer sampling method, convenience sampling method, systematic sampling method, stratified sampling method, etc.)?
o Discuss the advantages and limitations of the sampling method used.
o Is there another sampling method that may have been more appropriate? If so, what, and why?
o What is the relevance of sample size? Is the sample size appropriate and, if so, why? If not, why not?
o Does the sample reflect the target population and what does this mean? How is this related to generalisability/transferability (also known as external validity).
• Data Collection and Data Analysis –
General considerations:
o What type of data collection method(s) is/are used in the study?
o Are they appropriate? If so, why?
o Are the data collection methods standardised/ validated? What is the significance of this?
o Are there other data collection methods that may have been more beneficial? If so, what are they and why?
Here are some examples of specific data collection methods and, if used in your research study, are things to consider:
o Interviews - Who were the interviewers? Did they receive training to minimise bias? Where did the interviews take place? How may this impact the research? Were specific tools used, such as an interview question guide, note taking, or use of audio tape recorder? Was there any evidence of interview bias and what are the implications of this? Was the interview the most appropriate data collection method? If not, what other data collection method may have been more appropriate?
o Questionnaires – what is the type and format of the questionnaire (example, open-ended questions, closed-ended questions, Likert Scale, etc.) and what are the advantages and limitations of this? Were the questionnaires administered appropriately? Were the same questionnaires standardised and the same questionnaire used for all research participants? Why is this important?
o Physiological measurements – does the researcher provide a rationale for why an instrument or method was used? If so, what is the rationale, and does it make sense? Was provision was made for maintaining the accuracy of the instrument and its use, for example quality control checks, calibration, maintenance, and servicing etc? If so, what, and why is this important?
o Observational methods – who did the observing? Were the observers trained to minimise bias? Did they use an observational guide (standardisation)? Were the observers required to draw any conclusions about what they saw? Is there any reason to believe the presence of observers affects the behaviour of research participants?
o Use of data and records – were the records used appropriate to the problem being studied? What are some of the potential problems in using records to collect data (example, medical records) in research?
o Data analysis – were the data analysis procedures appropriate for the study design? Why?
• Note – in your discussion of data collection and data analysis, what did the researcher do to avoid bias and ensure reliability and validity? Why is this important
• Key Findings/ Results – things to consider:
o Did the researchers measure what they set out to measure (internal validity)? In other words, do the findings relate to the stated aim of the research study?
o What were the findings/main themes of the research study?
o What other studies support or refute these findings? Introduce, discuss, and reference these studies within your discussion of the findings.
o Can any generalisations be made (external validity) if so, what are they?
o What do the findings mean for practice?
o Does the researcher state the level of significance of their findings (for example, the P Value)? If so, what is it and are the findings significant?
• NOTE: Throughout the various sections of your essay, it is important to address validity (internal and external), reliability, and bias (where relevant) in relation to the research design, sample, data collection, data analysis and findings.
Note – once you have analysed the findings, sum them up in relation to your research question and clearly identify whether your research question been answered.
For example, you may write:
“Following analysis of the findings the research question, “What are the advantages of including fathers in antenatal classes?” has been answered, because …………………….”
(Keep this very brief – only summarise in a sentence or two – as you have already analysed the findings).
Then, for example, you may write:
“Consequently, the following recommendations for practice will be made:”
Remember: Throughout your assignment, reference all your ideas, arguments, and key points to ensure that you properly support your work with evidence.
Learning Outcome 2
(800 words)
Recommendations for Practice
Make recommendations for practice change related to an area of your practice based upon your empirical evaluation of the evidence

Recommendations for Practice
• Note – include a minimum of 2 separate recommendations.
• Note - Link your recommendations to your practice and, whenever possible, make recommendations that you could implement as a nursing associate, whilst using a change model of your choice.
• State clearly what your recommendations are and discuss each recommendation separately.
o “The first recommendation is that midwives should receive special training to address the specific needs of men in the antenatal period”.
o State why the recommendation is important (i.e., in the example above, you might explore the needs of men in the antenatal period, why education and training are important for healthcare professionals, the importance of evidence-based practice, and the implications for patient care and practice).
o Inform who the recommendation will be made to (for example, who could facilitate the implementation of your recommendation? Explore and discuss this and your role, as a nursing associate, in the implementation of the recommendation.
o Where would the training take place and why?
o Who would perform the training, and why? What would the training consist of?
o For each recommendation, you MUST identify actual or potential barriers to it and discuss solutions to overcome them.
o “The second recommendation is …
• Use a change model to structure your recommendation.
• An Example using Lewin’s change theory:
• Unfreeze current practice
o Current practice in the author’s workplace is …
• Move/Change
o Following the above review of literature as a TNA, the author would like to implement…
o The author feels this change is important because…
o This recommendation is for…because…
o In order to implement this change, the author will need to consider… (E.g., cost, training.)
o Potential barriers to change the author may encounter are…
o Potential solutions to the barriers that may be encountered are…
o The author would need to involve/consult… in order to make the change.
• Re-freeze
o As a TNA the author will evaluate the effectiveness of the change by …before permanent implementation of the practice change is agreed.
• Note – to provide a fully considered recommendation, you must think more broadly, utilise wider evidence, and create some critical discussion within each of your recommendations
• Note - each recommendation is unique, and your discussion of them MUST be fully supported by references.
Conclusion
(300 words)
• Your conclusion should summarise the discussions, main points, and key themes, put forward throughout your essay (learning outcome 1 and learning outcome 2).
For example, you may write:
“To conclude, this assignment has critically analysed a primary research study, related to practice, to answer the research question, “What are the advantages of including fathers in antenatal classes?”
o Note – summarise the whole of your assignment (not just findings). For example:
o What were the key points, discussions/arguments, points of interest, etc., throughout each of the sections of your assignment?
o Do not introduce new information/references.
• Important notes –
o Use BCU Harvard referencing throughout.
o Use references from a wide range of reliable sources.
o Ensure you are clearly meeting the learning outcomes.
o Critical analysis throughout using evidence to support your work.
o Link theory to practice - Make recommendations related to your practice and ones that you could implement in your role as a nursing associate.
Plagiarism
• You are reminded of the University’s Disciplinary Procedures that refer to plagiarism. A copy of the Disciplinary Procedure is available from iCity.
• Except where the assessment of an assignment is group based, the final piece of work that is submitted must be your own work. Close similarity between assignments is likely to lead to an investigation for cheating.
• You must also ensure that you acknowledge all sources you have used.
• Submissions that are the result of collusion or plagiarism will be dealt with under the University’s Disciplinary Procedures, and the penalty may involve the loss of academic credits.
• If you have any doubts about the extent to which you can collaborate with your colleagues, or the conventions for acknowledging the sources you have used, you should first consult module documentation and, if still unclear, your tutor.

source..
Content:

What Role Did Gender Play In Increasing Psychiatric Admissions?


Introduction
1.1 Background
This study project review will examine one primary research paper connected to practice, and then, following an examination of the data, give recommendations for practice change. Many nations including the U.K. experienced the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Ideally, the pandemic affected the social, economic, cultural and political ways of life in many countries but in the U.K., something intriguing also emerged. While the majority of clinical research into the COVID-19 pandemic including studies by Cullen et al. (2020); Usher et al. (2020); Hossain et al. (2020) focus on the mental and biophysical issues caused by the pandemic, few studies have focused on the link between the psychiatric effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and patient demographical changes (Davies and Hogarth, 2021). When the pandemic was first reported in the U.K. on 30th January 2020, citizens in the U.K. were already facing a myriad of economic, social and political challenges. The advent of the pandemic therefore meant increased mental stress. However, at the time, it was still unclear how the pandemic affected in-patient psychiatric admissions (Davies and Hogarth, 2021). It is therefore necessary to examine the link between adult in-patient psychiatric admission before and during the pandemic and how admission rates differed between gender.
The research is guided by a gender paradox paradigm that exists in clinical research (Schrijvers, Bollen & Sabbe, 2012). This gender paradox alludes to the fact that psychiatric conditions are prevalent among females than males and that this gender also accounts for a high number of suicide (Griffin et al., 2022). On the same front, males are more likely to experience suicide deaths than females by more violent means than women, who are more prone to stressful life events than traumatic life events as is the case with males (Schrijvers et al., 2012). For these reasons, the research aims to identify how the COVID-19 pandemic and associated policies such as lockdowns and isolation created ‘traumatic’ as opposed to ‘regular’ stressors among men and women in the U.K. population. The primary research question “what role did gender play in psychiatric admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.K?” emerges. The researchers Davies and Hogarth (2021) try to link gender variations to increased psychiatric admissions among males owing to depression caused by lockdowns. The research aims to facilitate how some mental disorders increased during the pandemic and how admission rates alternated, during and after the pandemic, owing to the enablement of crisis management teams and easing of lockdown policies.
Primary Study Review
1.1 Study design
A retrospective anonymous review of data was done among in-patient admitted prior and during the pandemic between the periods March to August 2019 and March to August 2020, respectively. The was conducted in Kent and MedWay NHS and Social Care Partnership Trust in-patient facilities. The ICD-10 criterion was also incorporated to determine admission and diagnosis and categorise the various subgroups based on diagnosis. Retrospective anonymous reviews are considered to have a lower level of evidence than experimental research, are more prone to bias and confounding factors, and cannot be used to show causation. Studies using a prospective observational approach, such as cohort studies, as well as non-experimental research methods, such as surveys, have been used in this investigation. The investigator does have some say over the variables that are measured, as well as when and how the measurements are made. Because it gives the researcher the chance to control for possible confounders and prejudices, take steps to increase responses, and select their sample, this methodology has the potential to produce more convincing results if it is implemented correctly and carried out according to its outlined procedures Morgan et al., (2017). This makes this study design to be a reliable resource in collecting information.
1.2 Ethics
Ethics in nursing research is the act of ethical principles that the research scientist has to follow in order to protect the rights and well-being of the people, groups, or communities being studied (West, 2020). Moreover, research ethics are the moral rules that researchers have to follow in order to do and report research without lying or trying to hurt the people in the study or society as a whole, whether they know it or not (Rashid, 2022). Ethical standards are used in medical research in order to promote and assure respect for all human subjects, as well as to preserve the subjects' rights and health (Rasoal et al., 2017). Even if the generation of new information is the fundamental objective of medical research, this objective must never be allowed to take priority over the rights and interests of individual people who participate in research (Song, 2018). Following receipt of consent from the hospital's ethical and scientific boards, the researchers asked for and received from the hospital a dataset that had been anonymised and included information on the necessary characteristics. Due to the fact that it was not feasible to identify individual patients, a consent form was not required nor requested in order to get started with the data collecting. This research article is a peer review study, and studies of this kind have become the bedrock upon which the system of academic publishing is built. This is due to the fact that peer reviews effectively put the work of an author under the scrutiny of other experts in the same area (Rasoal et al., 2017).
1.3 Sample
The authors of this research made use of a sample approach known as convenience sampling. The participants in a non-probability sampling approach known as convenience sampling are selected from a demographic group that is geographically or socially proximate to the study area. It is the alternative that is most helpful for carrying out pilot tests. This type of study cuts down on the amount of time spent collecting data, convenience sampling is a more cost-effective way to do so, this kind of sampling saves time overall, and when this approach is used, the data may be accessed immediately after it has been collected.
This kind of non-probability sampling known as convenience sampling does not involve the participants in the study being selected at random (Grove et al., 2019). On the other hand, there is a method called probability sampling, in which participants are picked at random and everyone has an equal chance of being selected (Etikan & Babtope, 2019). In the instance of this study, data may have been chosen by picking the data that was most suited for their research. The authors of this research included a total of 3123 participants in their sample (Rodrigues et al.,2022). Their estimate was more accurate since they had more data and, as a result, more information. The larger their sample size, the more certain they are in their estimate, and the more precise they were.
Data Collection and Data Analysis
1.1 Retrospective Data Analysis
The gathered data were then given a standard format. Data standardisation helps lessen the issues that are associated with poor data quality (Williams et al., 2018). These challenges include higher operating expenses and choices that are made without sufficient information (Williams et al., 2018). Because the researchers were making use of data that had already been obtained, there was no alternative technique of data collection that might have qualified to disqualify the observational method. In addition, it is probable that other approaches could not have been used since they compared two different time periods, namely the era before COVID-19 and the period during COVID. This would have made it impossible to utilise those methods.
The researchers looked at previous records and documents that had been gathered in the beginning. To gather data using this approach, one must first get and then analyse data taken from previously created documents. The information is already accessible via both internal and external data sources. As a result, there is no need for any further collection efforts to be performed. Using this strategy, you are able to monitor your development. It aids in your comprehension of the happenings and shifts that occurred throughout the specified time period.
1.2 Data analysis
The Shapiro-Wilk test was used in order to examine the normality of the quantitative variables after the data had been analysed using SPSS 26.0 (IBM, USA) (Rodrigues et al.,2022). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) offers data analysis for descriptive and bivariate statistics, numerical result predictions, and predictions for identifying groups (Rodrigues et al.,2022). The Chi-Square Test of Independence was employed to establish the correlation between categorical variables (Rodrigues et al.,2022). When analysing quantitative data, statisticians often turn to software like SPSS, which is designed for statistical analysis. Qualitative data describes attributes or characteristics. In addition to this, using the SPSS technique of data analysis lowers the likelihood of making mistakes in your computations.
1.3 Reliability and Validity
The reliability and validity of the findings are directly correlated to the quality of the research design you use, the methodologies and samples you choose, as well as the care and consistency with which you carry out the study (Davies and Hogarth 2021). Before you write a report on it by yourself, you may want to think about hav...

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