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Parkinson's Disease (Essay Sample)

Purpose This project is an in-depth investigation of a health condition. 1) Include the following sections about the selected disease process a. Introduction of disease • One paragraph • Includes disease description • Includes epidemiology of disease b. Etiology and risk factors • Common causes of the disease or condition • Risk factors for the disease or condition • Impact of age • Prevalence based on gender, • Influence of environment • Genetic basis of disease • Lifestyle influences • All information supported by current literature c. Pathophysiological processes • Describes changes occurring at the cellular, tissue, and/or organ level that contribute to the disease process. • Describes adaptation of the cells and body in response to the disease. • Relates disease processes to manifested signs and symptoms. d. Clinical manifestations and complications • Describes the physical signs and symptoms that are important in considering the presence of the disease. • Identifies signs that contribute to diagnosis of the condition • Identifies symptoms that contribute to diagnosis of the condition. • Identifies complications of the disease. • Discusses the implications to the patient when complications are left untreated. e. Diagnostics • Includes list of common laboratory and diagnostic tests used to determine the presence of the disease. • Discusses the significance of test findings in relation to the disease process. f. Interview Questions  What is the age of the individual being interviewed? What is the relationship of the individual to you? How long have they had the disorder?  What clinical manifestations of the disorder does the individual experience?  What complications of the disorder does the individual experience?  What other medical conditions/disorders has the individual been diagnosed with? Do their other medical conditions have any effect on the chosen disorder?  How does the disease affect the individual’s daily living/activities?  How does the disease/disorder affect the individual’s outlook on life?  What did you learn from interviewing the individual? source..
Parkinson’s disease Student Name Course Professor Institution Date Parkinson’s disease Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a multiple attribute neurological deterioration disorder that combines nonmotor and motor symptoms without definitive diagnostic clinical indicators. The disease impairs coordination, precipitating stiffness, shaking, and inability to walk. PD is regarded as the second most prevalent neuropathological disorder associated with disability and deplorable quality of life after Alzheimer's disease. The development of the symptoms is gradual and worsens over time with the progression of the disease resulting from dopaminergic cell death in the substantia nigra. The disease was initially described by James Parkinson in 1817 and later by Jean-Martin Charcot. According to (Kouli et al., 2018), the incidences of PD are more prevalent in older adults of 80 years and above, with a prevalence of 1-3 %. Consequently, the study finds a prevalence of 0.5-1% among those between 65-69 years of age. Prevalence of PD among persons below 40 years is noted to be rare. Further, the disease is more common in men than women, which is associated with the protective effect of estrogen in women. The disease presents differently in patients, with the most important to its diagnosis being the identification of the core features of the disease since the PD remains without a diagnostic test. Etiology and Risk Factors of Parkinson Disease PD is a multifactorial factored in by environmental and genetic factors. The most prevalent factor in PD is age, as its incidences metastasize at 65 years and above. PD etiology is not substantively understood; however, the cause of the disease is traced from a deficiency of dopamine in the substantia nigra an area in the brain that regulates movements (Saman & Yaddanapudi, 2019). The nerve cells in the substantia nigra are responsible for the production of dopamine that exerts an inhibitory effect on the basal ganglia, in turn regulating extrapyramidal movement. Furthermore, PD development is associated with pesticides, herbicides, and heavy metals contamination. The contamination of these chemicals poses a risk of nigrostriatal degeneration due to neurotoxin in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) damaging the substantia nigra when metabolized (Saman & Yaddanapudi, 2019). Consumption of well water that may be contaminated with heavy metals deposits has been identified to pose the risk of PD. Kouli et al. (2018) find PD prevalent in men than in women. The prevalence is attributed to environmental toxin exposure to men when handling farming and welding works that expose them to heavy metals than women. Further, the study finds the prevalence of PD rises with age, with age groups between 70 to 79 years having higher incidences (Kouli et al., 2018). The risk of PD on an individual is partially associated with the indistinct polygenic risk factors with the genes that have been found to cause PD assigned a "PARK" in the order of identification. The genes mutation demonstrates either autosomal dominant or autosomal inheritance forming the most significant genetic risk factor being GBA1 gene mutation. The lifestyle-induced factors associated with PD are uptake of caffeine, smoking, and quality diets that reduce the risk of the disease and improved outcomes in physical activities that involve mind-body exercises. Pathophysiological Processes of PD Parkinson’s disease is mainly related to progressive damage in the substantia nigra of the brain. The part in the brain is primarily accountable for producing dopamine which acts as a chemical go-between transmitting signals between brain regions that coordinate activity. The main cause seems to be the build-up of alpha-synuclein in different brain regions, mainly the substantia nigra, contributing to degeneration and loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia that regulate movement and muscle tone. Moreover, the build-up of the alpha-synuclein protein may be subsidiary to a genetic predisposition, such as with PARK-1 mutation (Saman & Yaddanapudi, 2019). Various disease hallmarks and molecular events are attributed to the disease development and progression irrespective of the etiological underpinnings, either genetic or environmental. The main cellular and molecular hallmarks are mostly linked with several interlinked events such as poly polymerase and other enzymatic activation, endoplasmic reticulum impairment, iron metabolic pathway dysregulation, disruption of trophic factors, neuronal excitotoxicity, loss of microtubular integrity, and vesicular transport disruption (Jankovic & Tan, 2020). The interplay of these mechanisms contributes to necrosis or the promotion of programmed cell death. As neurodegeneration proceeds, episodes of stress and periods of insult ensues, leading to irreversible cellular damage, cascades of insults, and finally neuronal death accounting for the manifestations of PD. Clinical Manifestations and Complications PD is manifested in slow movements and rigidity characterized by resting tremors as significant physical symptoms that point to the presence of the disease. Consequently, the disease is occasioned by signs that necessitate diagnoses such as slowness, where patients take an extended time to accomplish simple tasks and compromised response to threats and movements. Further rigidity is considered a significant sign-on examination that is characterized by stiffness. Moreover, diminished handwriting over time also points to the main sign for the diagnosis of PD. (Saman & Yaddanapudi, 2019). The notable symptoms contributing to PD diagnosis are trembling and impaired balance occasioned by falls due to reduced mortal coordination. In addition, stiffness of the trunk and limbs and slowness in the movement are significant symptoms for PD diagnosis. Furthermore, depression, mood disorders, drooling, and constipation is common symptoms contributing to PD diagnosis. The condition presents vast complications such as depression, dementia, laryngeal dysfunction, and kyphosis. The conditions extend adverse effects to the patient when left untreated with kyphosis precipitating cardiopulmonary impairment. Depression and dementia further worsen the patients' cognitive abilities deteriorating their quality of life. Similarly, laryngeal dysfunction leaves the patient incoherent, precipitated by obstruction of the vocal cords, which may also lead to trouble breathing. Diagnostics Diagnosis of PD involves engaging a Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale to quantify mentation, activities of daily living, tremor, and behavior. Clinical diagnosis of the disease largely depends on three aspects, including rigidity, tremor, and bradykinesia, and clinical evaluation of ...
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